Transport properties of bronchial mucus are investigated by two-stage experimental approach focused on: (a) rheological properties and (b) mass transfer rate through the stagnant layer of solutions of mucus components (mucine, DNA, proteins) and simulated multi-component mucus. Studies were done using thermostated horizontal diffusion cells with sodium cromoglycate and carminic acid as transferred solutes. Rheological properties of tested liquids was studied by a rotational viscometer and a cone-plate rheometer (dynamic method). First part of the studies demonstrated that inter-molecular interactions in these complex liquids influence both rheological and permeability characteristics. Transfer rate is governed not only by mucus composition and concentration but also by hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of transported molecules. Second part was focused on the properties of such a layer in presence of selected nanostructured particles (different nanoclays and graphene oxide) which may be present in lungs after inhalation. It was shown that most of such particles increase visco-elasticity of the mucus and reduce the rate of mass transfer of model drugs. Measured effects may have adverse impact on health, since they will reduce mucociliary clearance in vivo and slow down drug penetration to the bronchial epithelium during inhalation therapy.
The study presents the manners of determination of the Darcy friction factor λ for a homogenous hydromixture of alum sludge of varied hydration and temperature for the laminar flow zone. The rheological evaluation of the hydromixture as a viscoplastic body has been conducted with use of measurements of viscosity. The curves of flow were approximated with use of the generalized Vočadlo model. The Darcy friction factor λ of the pipeline was determined with use of the non-dimensional criterion λ(Regen) and λ(Re, He).
This paper presents simulation results of the consolidation process of the flotation waste landfill “Żelazny Most”. The mathematical model used in presented research is based on Biot’s model of consolidation and is extended with rheological skeleton. The load is the mass pressure of the landfill itself. The initial point selected for calculations was based on the ground water level calculated in a landfill. The creeping process in this waste landfill was analyzed along the north – south section. The solution is therefore 2D with the assumption of a plane strain state. Effective model parameters data were obtained in laboratory tests on the material from the waste landfill. Results obtained for a stress state in a storage state can help to determine whether the adopted linear model of visco-elastic medium does not lead to changes in the Coulomb – Mohr potential yield, showing the emergence of plasticity of material storage areas.
This study presents the rheological properties of sewage sludge after conditioning with the application of biomass ash. The impact of sewage sludge pre-treatment on its viscosity, ﬂow curves and thixotropy was investigated. The increase of shear stress and the decrease of viscosity were observed with the increase of shear rate. Obtained results were compared with raw sewage sludge and the sludge after modiﬁcation by means of polyelectrolyte in the dosage of 1.5 g (kg d.m.)-1. The ﬁndings proved that samples of raw and conditioned sewage sludge had thixotropic characteristics. The correlation between moisture content and capillary suction time reduction as well as selected rheological parameters were also determined. On the basis of the obtained results it was stated that the Ostwald de Vaele model best ﬁts the experimental data.
The present contribution reports on the rheological investigations concerning influence of high hydrostatic pressure on the molecular structure of gelatin gels. For the purpose of the study, a torsional shear wave rheometer for in-situ investigations of viscoelastic substances under high pressure was developed. Small amplitude vibrations generated by piezoelectric elements are used to determine the storage modulus of the investigated medium. The system is able to stand pressures up to 300 MPa. The experiments have been carried out with household gelatin (0.1 w/w aqueous solution). The gelification curves revealed similar time course. However, the values of G0 obtained for the gels curing 300 minutes under 100 MPa and 200 MPa were observed to be respectively 2.1 and 4 times higher than at ambient conditions. The increased number of triple helix junction zones is hypothesised to be the cause of this phenomenon as a result of reinforcement of the hydrogen bonds due to pressure. An attempt to cognize the characteristic dimensions of the molecular structure based on the theory of rubber elasticity is made.