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Number of results: 18
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Abstract

The paper discusses acoustic problems in the contemporary Catholic church, and presents a study of the influence of the ceiling structure on acoustics in the interior for two types of ceiling structures, i.e. the truss type and the reinforced concrete one. The investigations involved six contemporary churches: three buildings with a truss type ceiling and three buildings with a reinforced concrete ceiling. The results reveal that in churches with a truss type ceiling, acoustic parameters reach values close to recommendations. In contrast, churches with a concrete ceiling create very unfavourable acoustic conditions. The investigations rendered it possible to calculate the sound absorption coefficient α for the truss type cover.
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Abstract

This paper presents the interior acoustical characterization of the 9,000-seat church of the Holy Trinity in the Sanctuary of Fátima, Portugal, inaugurated in 2007. In situ measurements were held regarding interior sound pressure levels (with and without the HVAC equipment working), NC curves, RASTI (with and without the installed sound system) and reverberation time. The results are presented and commented according to the design values. A comparison is made with other churches in the world, also with a very large volume (for instance the Basilica Mariacka in Gdańsk). The measured data are also used to calculate a global index of this church acoustic quality using Engel's and Kosała's Index Method.
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Abstract

The paper presents the research studies carried out on the reverberation time of rooms, in terms of theoretical aspects and applicability potentials. Over the last century a very large number of scientists have been attempting to work out models describing the reverberation time in enclosed rooms. They have also been trying to apply these models for the description of various acoustic parameters of the interior, i.e. the intelligibility of speech, clarity, articulation, etc. In fact, all these models are based on the Sabine’s statistical method. The paper presents the work of the scientists working on this problem, together with prospective applicability potentials. Such a review may be helpful for researchers, designers or architects involved in the discussed subject.
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Abstract

Reverberation is a common problem for many speech technologies, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. This paper investigates the novel combination of precedence, binaural and statistical independence cues for enhancing reverberant speech, prior to ASR, under these adverse acoustical conditions when two microphone signals are available. Results of the enhancement are evaluated in terms of relevant signal measures and accuracy for both English and Polish ASR tasks. These show inconsistencies between the signal and recognition measures, although in recognition the proposed method consistently outperforms all other combinations and the spectral-subtraction baseline.
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Abstract

The article presents theoretical values of reverberation times calculated on the basis of the diffusion equation for three room models: flat, cubic, and long. The article shows that not only the average absorption coefficient, but also location of the absorbent material, as well as the place where the time is counted have an impact on the reverberation time, calculated on the basis of the diffusion equation. Despite that, the diffusion model is based on statistical assumptions. The primary goal of the article was to show that the model has geometrical features.
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Abstract

This study examined whether differences in reverberation time (RT) between typical sound field test rooms used in audiology clinics have an effect on speech recognition in multi-talker environments. Separate groups of participants listened to target speech sentences presented simultaneously with 0-to-3 competing sentences through four spatially-separated loudspeakers in two sound field test rooms having RT = 0:6 sec (Site 1: N = 16) and RT = 0:4 sec (Site 2: N = 12). Speech recognition scores (SRSs) for the Synchronized Sentence Set (S3) test and subjective estimates of perceived task difficulty were recorded. Obtained results indicate that the change in room RT from 0.4 to 0.6 sec did not significantly influence SRSs in quiet or in the presence of one competing sentence. However, this small change in RT affected SRSs when 2 and 3 competing sentences were present, resulting in mean SRSs that were about 8-10% better in the room with RT = 0:4 sec. Perceived task difficulty ratings increased as the complexity of the task increased, with average ratings similar across test sites for each level of sentence competition. These results suggest that site-specific normative data must be collected for sound field rooms if clinicians would like to use two or more directional speech maskers during routine sound field testing.
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Abstract

Acoustic parameters were analysed in nine auditoria and multi-purpose conference rooms in the University of Extremadura. Parameters related to the reverberation time, background noise, and intelligibility (both physical measurements of different parameters [Definition (D-50) and STI] and speech tests used to study the subjective response of listeners) were studied. The measurements were compared with some recommendations from the literature and, considering that speech was the main use of the studied rooms, with the intelligibility results. Some different recommendations for reverberation times taken from the literature were analysed. The intelligibility results obtained from the measurements were also compared with the intelligibility results that were determined by the speech tests.
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Abstract

Blank handgun shots, party balloon bursts, and a pneumatic compressor with a small-diameter nozzle were used as sources of sound in the assessments of reverberation time, T. The two first sources were of impulse type, while the third one resembled a noise signal source. In this work, 532 values of T were experimentally obtained in four rooms of different volumes and compared. The T values for 1/3 octave frequency bands were found to be independent of the sound source. Reverberation times for the A-frequency-weighting filtered signals were close to one another for the shots and balloon bursts, while those obtained using the compressor nozzle were significantly shorter. The latter effect can be attributed to the relatively high share of high frequency waves in the sound generated by the nozzle. The results show that balloon bursts can be used as handgun shot substitutes in the assessments of reverberation times. While the nozzle noise is rather unsuitable for this purpose, it can be applied in the assessments of T for high frequency waves, up to the ultrasound range. Such acoustic climate information may be useful in designing spaces for high frequency sound-sensitive individuals, e.g. animal shelters.
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Abstract

The present study was conducted in the lobbies of 16 Taiwanese urban hospitals to establish what contributes to the degree of noisiness experienced by patients and those accompanying them. Noise level measurements were then conducted by 15 min equivalent sound pressure levels (LAeq, 15m, dB) during daytime hours. The average LAeq itself was found to be poorly related to perceived noisiness. Levels variations were better correlated, more continual noise may actually be perceived as noisier. According to the findings of a multiple linear stepwise regression model (r = 0.91, R2 = 0.83), the 3 independent variables shown to have the largest effects on perceived noisiness were 1) 1/(L5 − L95), 2) effective duration of the normalized autocorrelation function (τe, h), of all LAeq, 15m over 9–17, and 3) percentile loudness, N5, 15m. These results resemble previous studies that had assumed that a larger fluctuation of noise level corresponds to less annoyance experienced for mixed traffic noise studied in a laboratory situation. As an advanced approach, for hospital noise that consisted of 12 audible noise events, subjective noisiness were evaluated by the noise time structure analyzed by autocorrelation with loudness and levels variation.
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Abstract

The article presents results of our own research regarding acoustic properties of 110 classrooms in five typical primary schools in Warsaw. The target of the research was to assess the classrooms using established criteria. These criteria include the reverberation time and the speech transmission index. The research has shown a large diversity of acoustic properties of classrooms within each of the schools and between the schools, resulting from the classroom equipment and the school building construction. In addition, the assessment has indicated that classrooms in schools researched do not meet the established acoustic criteria (reverberation time and speech transmission index). Because the classroom equipment is different for younger forms (integrated teaching) and for older forms (subject teaching), the results have been analyzed separately for rooms for younger forms (0-III) and for rooms for older forms (IV-VI). Synthetic results prove the advisability of such division. Correlation analysis has been conducted for the speech transmission index STI and reverberation time Tmf, as well as for the speech transmission index STI and the suggested reverberation time Twf defined in a similar manner as Tmf, but in a wider frequency range. The correlation between the speech transmission index STI and Twf is higher than that between the STI index and Tmf. The reverberation time Twf can therefore be used for a more precise assessment of acoustic properties of interiors with regard to verbal communication than Tmf. In addition, the paper presents estimated analysis results of the influence of selected classroom equipment (carpets) on its acoustic properties.
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Abstract

A set of sound power assessments was performed to determine measurement precision in specified conditions by the comparison method in a reverberation room with a fixed position array of six microphones. Six blenders (or mixers) and, complementary, a reference sound source were the noise sources. Five or six sound power calculations were undertaken on each noise source, and the standard deviation (sr) was computed as “measurement precision under repeatability conditions” for each octave band from 125 Hz to 8 kHz, and in dB(A). With the results obtained, values of sr equal 1.0 dB for 125 Hz and 250 Hz, 0.8 dB for 500 Hz to 2 kHz, and 0.5 dB for 4 kHz and 8 kHz. Those can be considered representative as sound power precision for blenders according to the measurement method used. The standard deviation of repeatability for the A-weighted sound power level equals 0.6 dB. This paper could be used for house or laboratory tests to check where their uncertainty assessment for sound power determination is similar or not to those generated at the National Metrology Institute.
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Abstract

The Chinese word identification and sentence intelligibility are evaluated by grades 3 and 5 students in the classrooms with different reverberation times (RTs) from three primary school under different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The relationships between subjective word identification and sentence in- telligibility scores and speech transmission index (STI) are analyzed. The results show that both Chinese word identification and sentence intelligibility scores for grades 3 and 5 students in the classroom in- creased with the increase of SNR (and STI), increased with the increase of the age of students, and decreased with the increase of RT. To achieve a 99% sentence intelligibility score, the STIs required for grades 3, grade 5 students, and adults are 0.71, 0.61, and 0.51, respectively. The required objective acoustical index determined by a certain threshold of the word identification test might be underestimated for younger children (grade 3 students) in classroom but overestimated for adults. A method based on the sentence test is more useful for speech intelligibility evaluation in classrooms than that based on the word test for different age groups. Younger children need more favorable classroom acoustical environment with a higher STI than older children and adults to achieve the optimum speech communication in the classroom.
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to measure subjective speech intelligibility in an enclosure with a long reverberation time and comparison of these results with objective parameters. Impulse Responses (IRs) were first determined with a dummy head in different measurement points of the enclosure. The following objective parameters were calculated with Dirac 4.1 software: Reverberation Time (RT), Early Decay Time (EDT), weighted Clarity (C50) and Speech Transmission Index (STI). For the chosen measurement points, a convolution of the IRs with the Polish Sentence Test (PST) and logatome tests was made. PST was presented at a background of a babble noise and speech reception threshold - SRT (i.e. SNR yielding 50% speech intelligibility) for those points were evaluated. A relationship of the sentence and logatome recognition vs. STI was determined. It was found that the final SRT data are well correlated with speech transmission index (STI), and can be expressed by a psychometric function. The difference between SRT determined in condition without reverberation and in reverberation conditions appeared to be a good measure of the effect of reverberation on speech intelligibility in a room. In addition, speech intelligibility, with and without use of the sound amplification system installed in the enclosure, was compared.
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Abstract

A theoretical method has been presented to describe sound decay in building enclosures and to simulate the room impulse response (RIR) employed for prediction of the indoor reverberation characteristics. The method was based on a solution of wave equation having the form of a series whose time-decaying components represent responses of acoustic modes to an impulse sound source. For small sound absorption on room walls this solution was found by means of the method of variation of parameters. A decay function was computed via the time-reverse integration of the squared RIR. Computer simulations carried out for a rectangular enclosure have proved that the RIR function reproduces the structure of a sound field in the initial stage of sound decay suffciently well. They have also shown that band-limitedness of the RIR has evident influence on the shape of the decay function and predicted decay times.
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Abstract

This paper discusses the concept of the reverberation radius, also known as critical distance, in rooms with non-uniformly distributed sound absorption. The reverberation radius is the distance from a sound source at which the direct sound level equals the reflected sound level. The currently used formulas to calculate the reverberation radius have been derived by the classic theories of Sabine or Eyring. However, these theories are only valid in perfectly diffused sound fields; thus, only when the energy density is constant throughout a room. Nevertheless, the generally used formulas for the reverberation radius have been used in any circumstance. Starting from theories for determining the reverberation time in non- diffuse sound fields, this paper firstly proposes a new formula to calculate the reverberation radius in rooms with non-uniformly distributed sound absorption. Then, a comparison between the classic formulas and the new one is performed in some rectangular rooms with non-uniformly distributed sound absorption. Finally, this paper introduces a new interpretation of the reverberation radius in non-diffuse sound fields. According to this interpretation, the time corresponding to the sound to travel a reverberation radius should be assumed as the lower limit of integration of the diffuse sound energy
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Abstract

Chinese is a tonal language, which differentiates it from non-tonal languages in the Western countries. A Chinese character consists of an initial, a final, and a tone. In the present study, the effects of noise and reverberation on the Chinese syllable, initial, final, and tone identification in rooms were investigated by using simulated binaural impulse responses through auralization method. The results show that the syllable identification score is the lowest, the tone identification score is the highest, and the initial identification scores are lower than those of the final identification under the same reverberation time and signal-to-noise ratio condition. The Chinese syllable, initial, and final identification scores increase with the increase of signal-to-noise ratio and decrease of the reverberation time. The noise and reverberation have insignificant effects on the Chinese tone identification scores under most room acoustical environments. The statistical relationship between the Chinese syllable articulation and phoneme articulation had been experimentally proved under different noise and reverberation conditions in simulated rooms.
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Abstract

Reverberant responses are widely used to characterize acoustic properties of rooms, such as the early decay time (EDT) and the reverberation times T20 and T30. However, in real conditions a sound decay is often deformed by background noise, thus a precise evaluation of decay times from noisy room responses is the main problem. In this paper this issue is examined by means of numerical method where the decay times are estimated from the decay function that has been determined by nonlinear polynomial regression from a pressure envelope obtained via the discrete Hilbert transform. In numerical experiment the room responses were obtained from simulations of a sound decay for two-room coupled system. Calculation results have shown that background noise slightly affects the evaluation of reverberation times T20 and T30 as long as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is not smaller than about 25 and 35 dB, respectively. However, when the SNR is close to about 20 and 30 dB, high overestimation of these times may occur as a result of bending up of the decay curve during the late decay.
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Abstract

In virtual acoustics or artificial reverberation, impulse responses can be split so that direct and reflected components of the sound field are reproduced via separate loudspeakers. The authors had investigated the perceptual effect of angular separation of those components in commonly used 5.0 and 7.0 multichannel systems, with one and three sound sources respectively (Kleczkowski et al., 2015, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 63, 428-443). In that work, each of the front channels of the 7.0 system was fed with only one sound source. In this work a similar experiment is reported, but with phantom sound sources between the front loud- speakers. The perceptual advantage of separation was found to be more consistent than in the condition of discrete sound sources. The results were analysed both for pooled listeners and in three groups, according to experience. The advantage of separation was the highest in the group of experienced listeners.
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