The paper presents the results of simulation tests of hydraulic resistance and temperature distribution of the prototype Stirling alpha engine supplied with waste heat. The following elements were analyzed: heater, regenerator and cooler. The engine uses compressed air as a working gas. Analyses were carried out for three working pressure values and different engine speeds. The work was carried out in order to optimize the configuration of the engine due to the minimization of hydraulic resistance, while maintaining the required thermal capacity of the device. Preliminary tests carried out on the real object allowed to determine boundary and initial conditions for simulation purposes. The simulation assumes that there is no heat exchange between the regenerator and the environment. The solid model used in simulation tests includes the following elements: supply channel, heater, regenerator, cooler, discharge channel. Due to the symmetrical structure of the analyzed elements, simulation tests were carried out using 1/6 of the volume of the system.
The paper describes the influence of graphite shape, size and amount to electrical properties of different cast irons. Experiments of electrical resistivity measurements were conducted during solidification of four different melts in different time intervals from melt treatment by inoculation and nodularization. Metallographic analyses were made in order to determine the shape, size, distribution and amount of graphite and correlate results with electrical resistivity measurements. It was found out that nodular graphite is giving the lowest electrical resistivity and is decreased during solidification. Electrical resistivity of lamellar cast iron is increased during solidification since lamellas interrupt metal matrix severely There is no significant difference in resistivity of vermicular cast iron from nodular cast iron. Smaller size of graphite and lower amount of graphite and higher amount of metal matrix also decrease resistivity.
In this paper an attempt to determine the relationship between the electrical resistivity and the tensile strength and hardness of cast iron of carbon equivalent in the range from 3.93% to 4.48%. Tests were performed on the gray cast iron for 12 different melts with different chemical composition. From one melt poured 6 samples. Based on the study of mechanical and electro-resistive determined variation characteristics of tensile strength, hardness and resistivity as a function of the carbon equivalent. Then, regression equations were developed as power functions describing the relationship between the resistivity of castings and their tensile strength and hardness. It was found a high level of regression equations to measuring points, particularly with regard to the relationship Rm=f(ρ). The obtained preliminary results indicate the possibility of application of the method of the resistance to rapid diagnostic casts on the production line, when we are dealing with repeatable production, in this case non variable geometry of the product for which it has been determinated before a regression equation.
The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impact of the subsurface geological structure in Nam Son landfill by hydrogeophysical method. The Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Self- -Potential (SP) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) method was used for geological structure investigation. Three profiles (total 900 m long) of two-dimensional ERT, VLF density sections and 180 SP data points scattered within the study area near the disposal site were implemented. Surface water and groundwater samples were collected from 10 sites in the area for hydrochemical analysis. Interpretations of geophysical data show a low resistivity zone (<15 Ω m), which appears to be a fully saturated zone with leachate from an open dumpsite. There is a good correlation between the geophysical investigations and the results of hydrochemical analysis.
DC resistivity soundings and geomorphological surveys have been carried out in the marginal zones and adjacent outwash plains of two glaciers in central Spitsbergen, Norwegian Arctic: Ebbabreen and Hörbyebreen. The study has revealed complex relationships between landforms, buried glacier ice and permafrost. From this work it is possible to distinguish between moraine ridges which are ice-cored and those which are not. The latter occur in areas which have possibly been affected by glacier surge. The active layer thickness was found to be 0.4 to 2.5 m for diamicton deposits (moraines) and 0.3 to 1.6 m in outwash glacifluvial sediments. The sediment infill thickness in valleys was determined to be as much as 20 m, thereby demonstrating that sandurs have important role in sediment storage in a glacial system. Typical resistivity values for sediment types in both the active layer and in permafrost were also determined.
Theoretical and experimental research indicates that radial loads have a significant influence on the value of belt-on-idler rolling resistances. Computational models discussed in literature use the notion of unit rolling resistance, i.e. rolling resistance per unit length of the idler. The total value of the rolling resistance of belt on a single idler is determined by integrating unit rolling resistance with respect to the length of the contact zone between the belt and the idler. This procedure requires the knowledge of normal load distribution along the contact zone between the belt and the idler. Loads acting on the idler set have been the object of both theoretical analyses and laboratory tests. Literature mentions several models which describe the distribution of normal loads along the contact zone between the belt and the idler set (Krause & Hettler, 1974; Lodewijks, 1996; Gładysiewicz, 2003; Jennings, 2014). Numerous experimental tests (Gładysiewicz & Kisielewski, 2017; Król, 2017; Król & Zombroń, 2012) demonstrated that the resultant normal loads acting on idlers are approximate to the loads calculated in theoretical models. If the resultant normal load is known, it is possible to assume the distribution of loads acting along the contact zone between the belt and the idler. This paper analyzes various hypothetical load distributions calculated for both the center idler roll and for the side idler roll. It also presents the results of calculations of belt rolling resistances for the analyzed distributions. In addition, it presents the results of calculations with allowance for load distribution along the generating line of the idler.
The article presents the use of computer graphics methods and computational geometry for the analysis on changes of geometrical parameters for a mixed zone in resistance-heated samples. To perform the physical simulation series of resistance heating process, the Gleeble 3800 physical simulator, located in the Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy in Gliwice, was used. The paper presents a description of the test stand and the method for performing the experiment. The numerical model is based on the Fourier-Kirchoff differential equation for unsteady heat flow with an internal volumetric heat source. In the case of direct heating of the sample, geometrical parameters of the remelting zone change rapidly. The described methodology of using shape descriptors to characterise the studied zone during the process allows to parametrise the heat influence zones. The shape descriptors were used for the chosen for characteristic timing steps of the simulation, which allowed the authors to describe the changes of the studied parameters as a function of temperature. Additionally, to determine the impact of external factors, the remelting zone parameters were estimated for two types of grips holding the sample, so-called hot grips of a shorter contact area with the sample, and so-called cold grips. Based on the collected data, conclusions were drawn on the impact of the process parameters on the localisation and shape of the mushy zone.
On the basis of induction heating, radiation heating and liquid nitrogen refrigeration, high-temperature, medium-temperature, normal-temperature and low-temperature heating/refrigeration furnaces were designed, respectively. An apparatus with a wide temperature range and high accuracy applied to test oxidation resistance of materials has been developed based on the thermogravimetric method and the heat transfer principle. The apparatus consists of four heating/cooling systems, a specimen fixture positioning unit, a laser positioning unit, vertical and horizontal moving guide rails, and a high-precision weighing balance. The apparatus, based on the thermogravimetric method, is able to test oxidation resistance of materials. In the test, the temperature range was ��180#24;3000◦C (the highest temperature is determined by material properties). The temperature control accuracy was #6;5◦C. The accuracy of on-line weighing was #6;0:1 mg. The measurement uncertainty was 0.2 mg. Compared with other relevant devices, this apparatus has its own advantages: simple operation, wide heating/cooling temperature range, sufficient specimen heating, high sensitivity and precision, and short heating/cooling time. The experimental results show that the developed apparatus presented in this study not only can be used for isothermal thermogravimetric tests, but also for thermal cycling tests and multi-step oxidation tests. With the effective integration of multiple heating apparatus and refrigeration apparatus, the apparatus breaks through the limitations of the heating/cooling temperature range of the existing devices, accomplishes the high-precision oxidation resistance test of materials in a wide temperature range, and will play a great role in improving the research of materials.
Plant responses to glyphosate applied at different doses were examined for one glyphosate resistant (R) and one glyphosate susceptible (S) population of Conyza albida and C. bonarienis. Growth rates and development stages of five R C. albida and three R C. bonarienis populations were also compared with those of their respective S counterparts to investigate the possible impact of the glyphosate resistance trait on their fitness. The GR50 values for C. albida R (3.94−5.22 kg a.i. · ha−1) and S (0.24−0.31 kg a.i. · ha−1) populations were higher than those of C. bonariensis R (0.60−1.51 kg a.i. · ha−1) and S (0.10−0.13 kg a.i. · ha−1). The growth rate (slope b) of one R C. albida population was lower than the respective S and other R populations, while growth rates of most R and S C. bonariensis populations were similar. Some R populations showed inconsistent differences in some development stages when compared to those of the S ones, which cannot be attributed to the glyphosate resistance trait.
Environmental factors and the addition of adjuvants to the spray tank mix may interfere with glyphosate efficiency in hairy fleabane control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of air temperature and the addition of ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 to glyphosate in the control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) hairy fleabane. Treatments consisted of air temperatures of 12°C and 25°C, six doses of glyphosate from zero to 2,880 g · ha−1, the presence or absence of (NH4)2SO4 in the spray solution, and one GS and another GR biotype. At the lowest tested dose (180 g · ha−1), control of the GR biotype was 91% and 20% when the plants were kept at 12°C and 25°C, respectively, reducing the resistance factor (RF) by 9.30 times and was associated to the reduction of temperature. The addition of (NH4)2SO4 increased the control by 10−20% at high glyphosate doses and at 25°C. The resistance of hairy fleabane to glyphosate was completely reversed when the plants were maintained at 12°C. At this temperature, resistant plants were controlled even at doses well below that recommended for the control of this species. At 25°C, a dose four times higher than that recommended was required for satisfactory control. At the field level, under situations of low temperatures, it was possible to improve the efficacy of glyphosate applications in hairy fleabane control, if there were no other mechanisms of resistance involved.
A revision of the standard approach to characterization of thin-semiconductor-layer Hall samples has been proposed. Our results show that simple checking of I(V) curve linearity at room temperature might be insufficient for correct determination of bias conditions of a sample before measurements of Hall effect. It is caused by the nonlinear behaviour of electrical contact layers, which should be treated together with the tested layer a priori as a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure. Our approach was examined with a Be-doped p-type InAs epitaxial layer, with four gold contacts. Despite using full high-quality photolithography a significant asymmetry in maximum differential resistance (Rd) values and positions relative to zero voltage (or current) value was observed for different contacts. This suggests that such characterization should be performed before each high-precision magneto-transport measurement in order to optimize the bias conditions.
The main scientific goal of this work is the presentation of the role of selected geophysical methods (Ground-Penetrating Radar GPR and Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT) to identify water escape zones from retention reservoirs. The paper proposes a methodology of geophysical investigations for the identification of water escape zones from a retention fresh water lake (low mineralised water). The study was performed in a lake reservoir in Upper Silesia. Since a number of years the administrators of the lake have observed a decreasing water level, a phenomenon that is not related to the exploitation of the object. The analysed retention lake has a maximal depth between 6 and 10 m, depending on the season. It is located on Triassic carbonate rocks of the Muschelkalk facies. Geophysical surveys included measurements on the water surface using ground penetration radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods. The measurements were performed from watercrafts made of non-metal materials. The prospection reached a depth of about 1 to 5 m below the reservoir bottom. Due to large difficulties of conducting investigations in the lake, a fragment with an area of about 5,300 m 2, where service activities and sealing works were already commenced, was selected for the geophysical survey. The scope of this work was: (1) field geophysical research (Ground-Penetrating Radar GPR and Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT with geodesic service), (2) processing of the obtained geophysical research results, (3) modelling of GPR and ERT anomalies on a fractured water reservoir bottom, and (4) interpretation of the obtained results based on the modelled geophysical anomalies. The geophysical surveys allowed for distinguishing a zone with anomalous physical parameters in the area of the analysed part of the retention lake. ERT surveys have shown that the water escape zone from the reservoir was characterised by significantly decreased electrical resistivities. Diffraction hyperboles and a zone of wave attenuation were observed on the GPR images in the lake bottom within the water escape zone indicating cracks in the bottom of the water reservoir. The proposed methodology of geophysical surveys seems effective in solving untypical issues such as measurements on the water surface.
The paper presents the initial results of investigation concerning the abrasion resistance of cast iron with nodular, vermicular, or flake graphite. The nodular and vermicular cast iron specimens were cut out of test coupons of the IIb type with the wall thickness equal to 25 mm, while the specimens made of grey cast iron containing flake graphite were cut out either of special casts with 20 mm thick walls or of the original brake disk. The abrasion tests were carried out by means of the T-01M tribological unit working in the pin-on-disk configuration. The counterface specimens (i.e. the disks) were made of the JT6500 brand name friction material. Each specimen was abraded over a distance of 4000 m. The mass losses, both of the specimens and of the counterface disks, were determined by weighting. It was found that the least wear among the examined materials was exhibited by the nodular cast iron. In turn, the smallest abrasion resistance was found in vermicular cast iron and in cast iron containing flake graphite coming from the brake disk. However, while the three types of specimens (those taken from the nodular cast iron and from grey cast iron coming either from the special casts or from the brake disk) have almost purely pearlitic matrix (P95/Fe05), the vermicular cast iron matrix was composed of pearlite and ferrite occurring in the amounts of about 50% each (P50/Fe50). Additionally, it was found that the highest temperature at the cast iron/counterface disk contact point was reached during the tests held for the nodular cast iron, while the lowest one occurred for the case of specially cast grey iron.
The aim of this paper was to test currently available on the market products for sealing anodic oxide coatings as well as to test the use of other alternative substances improving the sealing process. The ability to seal in 10 different solutions and the quality of the seal has been tested. The influence of the applied preparations on corrosion resistance and resistance to strongly alkaline environment was also investigated. Based on the results obtained, satisfactory results were archived for the sample sealed in a IMN-OML (Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals in Gliwice, Light Metals Division) solution sealant and in solution of nickel acetate in a medium-temperature process. Sealing by means of nickel acetate solutions is economically justified, and its use allows the process temperature to be lowered. When it comes to resistance to alkalis, samples sealed in IMN-OML sealant are the best. Commercial solutions have also achieved positive results in all tests.
Wider application of silicon carbide (SiC) is anticipated for increasing the durability of various structural facilities. For this study, SiC was fabricated with decreased electrical resistivity for precision electrical discharge machining. Two-step reaction sintering by infiltration of molten Fe-Si alloy was applied for SiC fabrication. The procedure included first sintering at 973 K in Ar gas atmosphere and second sintering by spontaneous infiltration of molten Fe-75%Si alloy at 1693 K in vacuum. The sintered structure porosity became very low, forming 3C-type SiC. Results confirmed that molten Fe-75%Si alloy infiltration occurred because of reaction sintering. The electrical resistivity of the sintered SiC infiltrated by molten Fe-75%Si alloy can be improved to be two orders of magnitude lower than that by molten Si, consequently maintaining the high performance of SiC.
Between 2004 and 2017, multiple studies on the herbicide resistance of weeds were conducted by the Institute of Plant Protection – National Research Institute in Poland. Weed seeds, collected from fields located in various regions of Poland where herbicide use was ineffective, were used in studies conducted under greenhouse conditions. A total of 261 loose silky bent (Apera spica-venti L.) samples were found to be herbicide resistant, which translates to 52.4% of the fields under study. Nearly 50% of the analyzed samples exhibited resistance to sulfonylurea herbicides. Resistance to acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitors was found in 18 fields, whereas resistance to photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors (isoproturon) was found in 12 fields. Herbicide resistance of blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.) occurred in 26 of the fields under study. In addition, resistance of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) to acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitors occurred in 10 spring cereal crops. In the case of winter wheat, resistance of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) to tribenuron-methyl occurred in 23 fields. Scentless chamomile (Matricaria inodora L.) and field poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) were resistant to tribenuron-methyl in four and three fields, respectively, of winter wheat. In the case of sugar beet, three biotypes of fat hen (Chenopodium album L.) and two biotypes of redroot amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) were resistant to metamitron. Horseweed (Conyza canadensis L.), which grows on railway tracks, exhibited resistance to glyphosate. This paper reviews all studies conducted in Poland on weed resistance. Based on the results, maps of weed resistance in Poland were created.
The paper presents the results of experimental-numerical tests of firing at aluminum composite materials. The test materials were manufactured by pressure infiltration of porous ceramic preforms made of -Al2O3 particles in the amount of 30% and 40% by volume. The EN AW-7075 alloy was chosen as the material matrix, and the steel 7.62×39 mm (M 43) FMJ (Full Metal Jacket) intermediate ammunition was selected for firing. In the result of the experiment, the samples were perforated with a clear difference in the muzzle diameter. The projectile with fragments caused damage to up to three reference plates placed behind the samples (witness plates) in composites with 40% of particles by volume. The mechanics of crack propagation during ballistic impacts of the projectile was characterized based on microstructure studies. Then, using numerical analysis of impact load, the examination of composite materials puncture in the ABAQUS environment was carried out. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed for the discretization of geometric models using Hex elements. The Johnson-Cook constitutive model describing the relationship between stress and strain in metal-ceramic composites was applied for the analyses. Numerical models were then subjected to numerical verification using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Based on the obtained results, it was found that the hybrid FEM/SPH method correlates significantly with the experimental results.
Although Syrian high-yielding wheat cultivars grown under Mediterranean conditions include acceptable levels of resistance to biotic constraints, little is known about their susceptibility to Fusarium head blight (FHB), a harmful disease of wheat cultivation worldwide. The capacity of 16 fungal isolates of four FHB species to confer the disease on spikes and spikelets of six widely grown old and modern Syrian durum and bread wheat cultivars with known in vitro quantitative resistance to FHB was evaluated. Quantitative traits were visually assessed using spray and point inoculations for determining disease development rates, disease incidence (DI) and disease severity (DS) under controlled conditions. Differences in pathogenicity and susceptibility among wheat cultivars were observed, emphasizing the need for breeders to include aggressive isolates or a mixture of isolates representative of the FHB diversity in their screenings for selection of disease resistant cultivars. Bread wheat cultivars showed lower levels of spike and spikelet damage than durum cultivars regardless of the date of cultivar release. Overall, the six wheat cultivars expressed acceptable resistance levels to initial fungal infection and fungal spread. Quantitative traits showed significant correlation with previous standardized area under disease progress curve (AUDPCstandard) data generated in vitro. Thus, the predictive ability of AUDPCstandard appears to be crucial in assessing pathogenicity and resistance in adult wheat plants under controlled conditions. While in the Mediterranean countries the risk of disease is progressively increasing, the preliminary data in this report adds to our knowledge about four FHB species pathogenicity on a Syrian scale, where the environment is quite similar to some Mediterranean wheat growing areas, and show that Syrian cultivars could be new resistant donors with favorable agronomical characteristics in FHB-wheat breeding programs.
Article published in Science, 2012 by Jennifer A. Doudna, Emmanuelle Charpentier and their team presented a novel tool named as CRISPR/Cas9. The original CRISPR/Cas9 tool and the whole system developed from it since then allow making precise changes in the nucleotide sequence in the defined locus of the genome. The article presents the already known as well the potential future applications of the system for improvement of cultivated plants. The separate section is devoted to present the background of the Court of Justice decision C-528/16. Discussed are the far reaching negative consequences of this, based not on the merit decision, for the future of European green biotechnology.