Scientists are increasingly specializing in narrower fields, and communication is often difficult between physicists researching elementary particles and those studying semiconductors, not to mention between physicists and biologists or doctors. This makes interdisciplinary work difficult. And yet sometimes they succeed. One thread of work underway at the PAS Institute of High Pressure Physics offers a good example.
This article analyses a hierarchical structure of academia within two academic social media networking sites, i.e. Academia.edu and ResearchGate. In this study, I investigate profiles (in these two services) of all academic staff members of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań (N = 2661). I use the concept of prestige to analyse whether the hierarchical structure of academia is being reproduced in analysed services. Since prestige is an unobservable construct, I use two indicators to measure it: the number of followers and the number of views. My findings show that the hierarchical structure differs between Academia.edu and Research- Gate. While the structure of ResearchGate is explicitly hierarchical in reference to degrees of the researchers (a higher degree is related to a higher value of the prestige indicators), the structure of Academia.edu resembles a reversed pyramid (a higher degree is related to a lower value of the prestige indicators). The article concludes with a discussion concerning possible causes of differences between services in terms of reproducing the hierarchical structure. Moreover, I provide potential implications of the results as well as the justification of the necessity of using the concept of prestige to determine hierarchical structure of academia.
In 1949 the first book of the Atlas of Polish Traditional Costumes series appeared. Józef Gajek was the one who initiated the series, published by Polish Folk Association to this day. He was associated with Polish Ethnographic Atlas, which had a great impact on the character of the series. Its main objective was to describe Polish traditional costumes according to particular regions. Janusz Kamocki and Barbara Bazielich were subsequent editors of the series. Since 2011 the authors of this article have been part of the editorial staff. At their initiative ten more books of the series were published in the years 2013–2018, field research on traditional handicraft was conducted and the Traditional Costume Section was established. The article describes the circumstances accompanying this editorial series appearance and discusses both main directions in research on traditional costumes and activities for popularising knowledge of this unique cultural phenomenon.
In the era of transition to a low-carbon economy, optimal use of the developmental resources within urban regions expresses the need to limit suburbanization and increase the energy efficiency. Solutions are sought as an alternative for the suburban housing estates embodying the image high-quality life in the American Dream style. Aspects of the urban innovation, serving the public sector as a tool for improvement of the quality in residential environment, are considered in the article. Selected examples (mainly German) are described with reference to 1) the changes in the standards of housing development, 2) large-scale renewal programs for residential areas, 3) development and dissemination of urban design (the technique). The interaction between scientific research and the implementation sphere, remaining in the hands of local governments, is important here. Synergy, at a local level, is of key importance in at least four aspects in urban development: 1) solving complex, atypical problems, 2) the public sector being a strong (independent) partner, 3) adaptation of foreign concepts, from other planning systems/cultures and morphologically different urban structures, 4) strengthening the position in relations with the EU.
The work presents the results of the research and tests of the surface machining of the S355NL and X5CrNi18-10 steels with the concentraded stream of heat with the usage of the GTAW method. The surface layers of the tested steels were remelted with the electric arc using the current of the electric arc 50, 100, 150 and 200A.The machining was done in the atmosphere of argon with the constant speed of the welding head. A microscope examination was performed of the obtained structure and measurements of depth, width and hardness of the received surface layer were performed. Moreover the relation between the current of the electric arc and geometry of the remelted layers with their microhardness was examined.
This article discusses selected aspects of the organisation of the academic article introduction – a section of a central academic genre, recognised as both troublesome (Swales 1990) and strategically important, as it is at this stage that the reader forms the fi rst, and often lasting, impressions of the whole text. Based on Swales’ (1990) revised CARS model of article introductions and drawing on previous Polish–English contrastive studies (e.g., Duszak 1994; Golebiowski 1998, 1999), it looks into the placement, realisation, and role of the purpose statement in introductions to articles published in the years 2001-2006 in linguistics-related peer-reviewed Englishand Polish-language journals. It seeks answers to the following questions: (i) Is the statement of purpose a typical/recurrent feature of introductions to Polish-language articles? (ii) If it does occur in Polish, in which part of the introduction is it usually made by Polish authors as compared to English writers? (iii) What is the preferred way of announcing it in both groups of texts? and (iv) Can any assessment be made of its prominence in both languages on the basis of what precedes and what follows it? Contrary to what might have been expected on the basis of previous studies, the article demonstrates that the statement of purpose is in fact a stable element of the introduction to a Polish-language linguistics article, although its prominence depends on the presence of other rhetorical moves.
The issue in the title is known and is being analyzed for a long time, however its complexity makes the setting of both – the future of it and contemporary form – emerge a lot of questions marks. I do not intend to leave most of them aside. I do make an attempt however to present its complexity and as well the importance in the reflextion upon life and activity of scholars. In these remarks I do recall several ways of presenting it and do make an attempt to stress out those of research possibilities which may lead to interesting outcomes. In the end part of the remakrs I do present some of them. I treat this step as an invitation to further discussion on the sensibility and anger of scholars.
This study is focused on scholarship on proper names within a sociolinguistic framework. The main aim of this study is to clarify the term socio-onomastics and its meaning and usage with regards to toponomastics. Special attention is paid to the genesis of socio-onomastics and to the relations between sociolinguistics, onomastics and socio-onomastics. The influence of social aspects on the act of naming and on the entire existence of names is also taken into consideration when discussing the use of socio-onomastics. The text discusses views and attitudes towards the topic presented in linguistic literature. The socio-onomastic aspects are predominantly studied in scholarship on personal names, e.g. name creation and choice. In the case of place names, they are studied more rarely and the research pays attention mostly to the usage of place names in communication. Available toponomastic and anthroponomastic works using the term socio-onomastics in their description have been analyzed, as well as theoretical onomastic literature, producing several findings of differences in the usage of this term. The main topics of socio-antroponomastic literature are anthroponymy of various social groups, social aspects of name choice, social aspects of the development of naming systems, popularity of names, nicknames, hypocorisms and slang naming. The socio-toponomastic works mainly deal with the toponymy of various social groups, toponymic competence (knowledge and usage of toponyms), non-standardized toponyms, slang toponyms, social-based toponyms (commemorative toponyms), social-based renaming, and the linguistic landscape.
The evolution of David Harvey’s scientific interests. David Harvey’s work is a significant example of evolution and differences in contemporary human geography. It is characterised especially by three features related to one another: a constant change in scientific and research interests, a tendency to bridge the divisions between geographical specialities and scientific disciplines and the inclination towards deep theoretical and methodological reflection. A temporal and problem analysis allows distinguishing two phases of his research interests. In the first, neopositivist one, Harvey discusses methodological aspects of geography, being part of the process of changes in the research pattern of the maternal discipline; in the second, as a confirmed Marxist and radical geographer, he critically analyses contemporary urbanisation and the ideas of postmodernism and neoliberalism. Along with the evolution of scientific and research interests, Harvey’s approach to the examined issues changes – from an inquisitive researcher, concerned with the state of a native scientific discipline, he becomes a critical observer and a reformer of the surrounding reality.
On May 17, 2018, the National Center for Research and Development announced the initiation of a new procedure within the Hydrogen Storage Program. The objective was to develop a Hydrogen Storage System for use with fuel cells and its demonstration in a Mobile Facility. This is to create an alternative to the use of fossil fuels and create a field for competition in creating solutions in the field of access to “clean” energy. The National Center for Research and Development is responsible for the development of assumptions, regulations and implementation. The analysis presents the main assumptions of the program is correlated to the current legal situation related to the financing of Research and Development. An in-depth study concerns the ways of using innovative partnership and its placement in the system of European Union legal acts. The idea of the pre-commercial procurement procedure (Pre-Commercial Procurement), which was developed to support the implementation of prototypes of solutions – resulting from research and development – with a high potential for possible commercialization, was described in details. This procedure is characterized by ensuring the financing of a product or service at an early stage of development. Although this creates the risk of failure of the project, it stimulates technological development.
With this paper we try to contribute to the debate on the nature of research intensive universities and the chances to create this type of institution in Poland. Research universities are presented as elite, flagship institutions for educating students mostly at the doctoral level and to produce the bulk of the research output. Examples of world-class research intensive universities from various countries are presented. It is shown that intensified competition among universities exists to prove their performance through global university league tables or ranking exercises and it is discussed whether Poland is at the stage to create at least one such institution playing important role in that competition. We argue that the establishment of a University of the Polish Academy of Sciences could be a solution. This University stands to become a unique research institution in Poland and one of very few establishments of its type in Central and Eastern Europe. The University will conduct scientific research and provide programs of the highest standard, exploiting the research and teaching potential of the PAS institutes as well as the competence and experience of members of the Academy's corporation. It is intended as a higher education institution with a decentralized organizational structure, based on the PAS research institutes. The University of the Polish Academy of Sciences will have a quality-boosting impact on the PAS institutes as well as initiate their consolidation and reorganization in the field of teaching.
Scientific output analysis in Poland takes place in many ways: by use both central and local databases. The article discusses the contents and bibliometric functions of the most important bibliographic databases, i.e. “People of science”, Polish Scientific Bibliography and employeers local registration system Expertus. The authors evaluate these tools from the perspective of the ability to make comparisons of the effectivity of individual researchers as well as to stimulate the development of scientific careers. As alternative solution relative to the analytical spectrum of all external tools, the authors present own application that allows visualization of scientific achievements. According authors’ observation, the Scientific Visualiser can enrich the individual information space of the contemporary scientist. Dedicated application certainly facilitates the evaluation of the publication activity, increases an awareness of updating of the bibliographic data, helps in discovering the relationship between the research fields, inspires to broaden intelectual horizons and cooperation networks. From another side, it can also be a tool supporting administration activities, such as: employees evaluation, promotion proceedings, accreditation, experts selection, distribution of funds.
In this article, we wish to address the potential of cities and built environments as important sites for international education. We will introduce Urban Labs Central Europe, methodological concept that frames our pedagogies, which we practice in the context of international education, more specifically, American University study abroad programs in Poland and Central Europe. We will begin by considering several dimensions in which cities are important for international education and how they are central to our pedagogies. We will then explain our concept of Urban Labs and give some examples from our work with students.
The aim of this article is to analyze both the motivations of foreign scholars to come to work in Poland – specifically Kraków – and their ways of adapting to this significant Polish academic center. Most studies on highly skilled migrants (HSMs) concentrate on the flows between developing and highly developed countries. We concentrate on Central and Eastern Europe. This paper, based on in-depth interviews with 23 foreign scholars working full-time at four universities in Kraków, is a follow-up to a study presenting a 2015 analysis of websites of universities from Kraków. We look closely at barriers to and facilitators of foreign scholars’ adaptation to Poland and their perceived image of Poland and Polishness, their national identification and international contacts. We propose a typology comprised of “cosmopolitans”, “status seekers”, “enthusiasts”, and “commuters”. Our investigations reveal who decides to move to a semi-peripheral country such as Poland, and why. Certain parts of the narratives can be used in building a strategy of attracting more international scholars to academic centers such as Kraków.
The article is an answer to questions concerning values, goals and functions of the University in the era of globalization changes that enforce changes in the area of higher education. The author emphasizes the need for balanced development of science, humanities and social sciences as a condition for preserving research independence, as well as the importance of cooperation, both in research and in the „shaping of autonomous institutionalism” of the University (Roggero). The article provides an analysis of the commercialization process of research results, based on data from Polish and foreign studies, and indicates its various forms and social costs. This is a study of the University's condition in the face of the growing importance of transnational corporations, regulating not only the flow of capital, but also the distribution of scientific prestige and appropriating in a different way the effects of academic work. The metaphor of the university as a enterprise/knowledge factory visualizes the errors in perceiving the role that it should play. It proves that research and teaching is not the production and transmission of knowledge, but the creation and sharing of knowledge. In this dialogical process, the idea of a university understood as a community of educators and taught in pursuit of truth is achieved most fully, not for glory, for making profit or for gaining a competitive advantage.
A draft of the changes to the Polish Academy of Sciences is presented, which will increase its prestige and make better use of the scientific potential of the members of the Academy and the employees of its institutes. The proposed regulations will allow for a comprehensive activation of potential of both institutes and corporate members. The aim of reform is to make the PAS an attractive scientific institution with a focus on the pursuit of fundamental research at the highest level, and to recognize that understanding and clarification of the problem must precede possible applications.
The paper deals with possibilities of innovation projects financing in the Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs) in the Czech Republic. It discusses, in the emphasis on SMEs, possible approaches to innovative company financing in dependence on company life cycle. Well established and functional models of innovative companies financing as FFF, Business angels, Private equity and Venture capital funding and mezzanine financing are discussed. Inasmuch SMEs are considered the key driving force of the Czech economy and the stabilizing feature of the regional development, the government places emphasis on the development of financial instruments which would ensure an ongoing financial support of innovation projects. But managements of SMEs insufficiently use all opportunities to obtain investment resources for the growth, future competitiveness and prosperity of their companies. According to researches performed in EU it was proven that financing constraints hinder innovation among SMEs. Maintaining regional balance through sustainable performance of SMEs is the common aim of municipalities as well. It is necessary for SMEs to form long-term relationships with their municipalities in the region. Programmes which arrange financial support for institutions are provided through private investors, grants, the EU funds and national budget. The paper evaluates pros and cons of various types of financial subsidies with respect to payback periods, risk exposure and availability. The paper includes the outputs of empirical research in SMEs carried out 2014 focused on steering innovation projects in SMEs. The aim of the research was to find out if SMEs can manage, evaluate and develop innovation projects. Moreover the authors examined the effectiveness of relationships established between SMEs and municipalities and problems which the SMEs are confronted by upon the ensurance of project innovation investments. The sources procurement is a very sophisticated topic and it is beneficial for the SMEs to establish a close cooperation not only with municipalities but also with universities.
WILGA annual symposium on advanced photonic and electronic systems has been organized by young scientist for young scientists since two decades. It traditionally gathers around 400 young researchers and their tutors. Ph.D students and graduates present their recent achievements during well attended oral sessions. Wilga is a very good digest of Ph.D. works carried out at technical universities in electronics and photonics, as well as information sciences throughout Poland and some neighboring countries. Publishing patronage over Wilga keep Elektronika technical journal by SEP, IJET and Proceedings of SPIE. The latter world editorial series publishes annually more than 200 papers from Wilga. Wilga 2018 was the XLII edition of this meeting. The following topical tracks were distinguished: photonics, electronics, information technologies and system research. The article is a digest of some chosen works presented during Wilga 2018 symposium. WILGA 2017 works were published in Proc. SPIE vol.10445. WILGA 2018 works were published in Proc. SPIE vol.10808.
Polish Literary Bibliography shows the documentation material in an annual order records of the texts of Polish authors, also translated into foreign languages and foreign authors translated into Polish. It notes works in the theory of literature and also history of literature, literary life, literary criticism, theater and film. Is a complete theatrical and film bibliography, presents records of radio plays and television theater. In the years 1954–2000 it appeared in annual cycles, including in 38 volumes material from the years 1944/1945–1988. To the volume for 1985, it was subjected to constant censor interventions. Since 1989, it exists as an online database. The creator of PLB was professor Stefan Vrtel-Wierczyński, who has also established in 1948 Department of Current Bibliography in which the bibliography is being developed.
The article is an attempt to outline the theoretical and methodological reflection on public history in the context of some conceptual models and concrete examples of case studies. Considering discursive situations, suppositions, suggestions and interpellations on the enlightenment postulate with regard to public history (including the issues: magistra vitae, emancipatory project, affirmative history, emotive revolution, critical discourse in the public space, modus art based research) I deal with the issues: what is actually the content of public history: history or memory? Does the enlightenment postulate with regard to public history turn memory into history? Are we dealing with some project concocted by the intelligentsia and scientific elite? What are the current trends in the implementation of critical discourse in public history?
There may be circumstances where academic degrees or the title of professor are obtained deceitfully, i.e. in breach of copyrights or moral principles in science. Dishonesty in scientific research constitutes gross misconduct because it is executed in order to appropriate ideas, findings, collocations and theses of others, without accurate citation of the source. It also entails infringement of intellectual property rights. Scientific misconduct in ethical and legal aspect is explicit. It disqualifies the offender as a scientist. The unlawful act of obtaining an academic degree (Ph.D.) or the title of professor in such a deceitful manner, irrespective of how much time has passed, shall not make the resumption condition fall under the statute of limitations. Thus, it enables the reopening of procedures to deprive the person who deceitfully obtained an academic degree or title of this degree or title.