The Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, one of the most robust centers for research on food and its improved quality. This year, the Olsztyn-based Institute celebrates the 30th anniversary of its establishment.
Various experiences related to research work, including the less successful ones, are all part of the research process. Awareness of their existence allows to draw conclusions from one’s mistakes and a more responsibly design of a research. This article aims to understand the traps a researcher, exploring intellectual disability, may fall into. As a result of search and reflection, three kinds of traps can be listed: resistance — submission, norm — pathology, correctness — negligence.
The paper contains an overview of ethical issues related to technoscience, followed by a more detailed presentation of ethical aspects of measurement-based experimentation, publishing peer-reviewing practices. The need for increased sensitivity of scientists to this kind of issues is justified by the evolution of research institutions in the postmodern era.
This study reveals significant and emergent research topics in the field ‘engineering, mechanical’ through bibliometric analysis of articles indexed in Web of Science (WoS) from 1997 to 2016. Publications under consideration (219,191 articles) were examined using quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate general information about publications; evolution of research topics by keyword analysis; performance of countries, research centers and journals; and international collaborations. There was a threefold increase in number of articles throughout the period. The publications were related to 35 WoS categories; and mechanics and thermodynamics were dominating ones. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer was the leading journal in the field. The USA and China were outstanding countries of the field. Collaboration between these countries corresponded to 6.57% of all collaborative publications. Industrialized and developing countries dominated research activities in the field. Indian Institute of Technology was the leading research center due to number of publications. The results showed that heat transfer, finite element method, friction, wear, simulation, and fatigue are important topics of the field. There is an upward trend in research related to nanofluids, microchannel, phase change materials, and carbon nanotubes.
The paper presents the research studies carried out on the reverberation time of rooms, in terms of theoretical aspects and applicability potentials. Over the last century a very large number of scientists have been attempting to work out models describing the reverberation time in enclosed rooms. They have also been trying to apply these models for the description of various acoustic parameters of the interior, i.e. the intelligibility of speech, clarity, articulation, etc. In fact, all these models are based on the Sabine’s statistical method. The paper presents the work of the scientists working on this problem, together with prospective applicability potentials. Such a review may be helpful for researchers, designers or architects involved in the discussed subject.
Methane explosions are among the greatest hazards in the Polish coal mining industry and unfortunately continue to cause many catastrophes. The constant growth of the depth of coal exploitation in the conditions of the high concentration of mining causes the increase of absolute methane content and methane seam pressure from the mined seams. This situation directly affects the increase in the level of methane hazard in the underground work environment. It is therefore obvious to undertake intensive research that will allow for the development of appropriate solutions that help to exclude the risk of mining catastrophes resulting from the ignition and/or methane explosion. In addition to the development of methane hazard prevention methods, an indispensable element of this approach is a very accurate identification of the mechanisms of the combustion and explosion of this gas. The article presents the method of investigation and examples of results of methane explosions carried out in the 400 m experimental gallery of the Experimental Mine “Barbara” of the Central Mining Institute – the only large scale underground experimental facility in Europe. A n analysis has been performed of the influence of the methane release into mining workings on the distribution of the gas concentration and on the course of its explosion or combustion. The data collected characterizes thermodynamic phenomena that form the basis for determining the level of the explosion hazard. Large scale studies have also allowed to assess the risk of conditions that are sufficient for the development of a coal dust explosion initiated by methane explosions. The large scale of the experiments and the system of continuous recording of the course of the experiments allowed the specific characteristics of the methane explosion and burning in underground mining workings to be identified and isolated. For the first time, the course of experiments was recorded via a camera system deployed along the gallery.
Dr. Piotr Achinger of the PAS Institute of Mathematics talks about the job of a mathematician and the importance of basic research – explaining why some projects are like snakes, but others are like octopuses.
The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
Introduction: Interventional cardiology (IC) is a rapidly expanding fi eld of medicine. Medical studies should provide students the necessary level of knowledge about new techniques in IC. The aim of the study was to assess the medical students’ knowledge about various new areas of IC. Material and methods: Self-designed questionnaire was used to assess student’s knowledge. It contained 31 questions. Th e initial 3 questions concerned general information, the remaining ones were related to diff erent IC techniques: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI), Bioresorbable Vascular Scaff old (BVS), percutaneous mitral regurgitation repair methods, Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion (LAAO), Renal DeNervation (RDN), Balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty (BAV) and Atrial Septal Defect/Persistent Foramen Ovale (ASD/PFO). One point for each correct answer was awarded. Results: In our study participated 104 students. Mean score was 15.9 ± 5.8 points. 24% of participants were 3rd year students, 38% — 4th, 20% — 5th and 18% — 6th. Th ere was no diff erences in level of knowledge between students of diff erent years of studies (p = 0.2). Students from Students Research Groups (SRG) achieved higher score in comparison with students no attending SRG (19.3 ± 6.3 vs 13.3 ± 3.7; p <0.001) as well as students interested in cardiology comparison with other (19.6 ± 5.9 vs 13.0 ± 3.8; p <0.001). Students from SRG and interested in cardiology reached also higher results in practically every area of IC in comparison with other. Conclusions: Participants have insuffi cient, outdated and incomplete knowledge of new methods in IC. Th ere was no signifi cant diff erence in students of diff erent years of studies. Students belonging to cardiological SRG and interested in cardiology have greater knowledge in IC.
The article presents reflections on the intergenerational educational-research project entitled “Restoring the Memory of the City”. This project was carried out by the University of the Third Age in Toruń in partnership with the Faculty of Education of the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń within the “Patriotism of Tomorrow” framework announced by the Polish History Museum and financed by the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage. This project was based on Pierre Nora’s concept of memorial sites and modern vision of patriotism. In didactic and methodological layer it was embedded within the framework of action research, thereby allowing to combine historical contents with pedagogical method of their modern transfer. The text shows the objectives and results of the project. Also, it describes its course and activities undertaken throughout its duration. Presenting the results of this project focused on the multidimensionality of related with them intergenerational process of learning
The main goal of this article is to compare the opinions of citizens from four European countries (Germany, Great Britain, Spain and Poland) regarding basic income in the broader context, among other things, of welfare regimes these countries represent. Statistical analyses of the Europeans’ attitudes towards basic income are based on interviews carried out in 28 European Union countries. Four countries, representing four different types of welfare regimes that can be found in the literature (the Nordic model has been excluded due to the sample size), and differing in economic welfare as well as historical experiences in regard to socio-economic system formation, have been selected for further analysis. Our analysis is based on special use of the single posthoc test with the Bonferroni adjustment for evaluating cross-country differences in basic income support and use of logistic regression for verifying the within-country impact of particular effects on basic income attitudes. The results of our analysis do not confirm that either the type of welfare regime or the level of social services in particular countries have a significant impact on attitudes toward basic income attitudes. However, we found the clear and direct impact of basic income awareness on supporting the programme.
In 2015 Supreme Audit Office published the report concerned the quality of doctoral studies in Poland. Result of the conducted audit is alarming: “there are serious doubts both about quality and effectiveness of mass doctoral education” (SAO 2015). The text presents an overview of university regulations concerned the evaluation of annual achievements of PhD students (in the area of social sciences) and indicates its potentially negative consequences for the quality of their academic activity. The article refers to two terms – “running for points” and “parametric game”– introduced by Emanuel Kulczycki to describe consequences of economization of research evaluation system, i.e. measuring academic activities and turning them into points-based rewards.
This paper aims to open the discussion about historian’s emotions during the research process that has mostly been covered up. It does not pretend to be a thorough account of the topic but a modest essay that might encourage other researcher to reflect on their experiences. Firstly, we briefly describe the current situation in a few neighboring disciplines. Secondly, we explain how we understand emotions and use the terms emotion, feeling and sentiment. Thirdly, we discuss the reasons why most historians keep silent about their feelings. Fourthly, with two examples, we illustrate how historians have written about their emotions. Fifthly, we present a model of emotional phases of research by the Danish social psychologist Steinar Kvale and evaluate its relevance to historical research. Then we look at the causes and/or objects of feelings of students or beginning scholars in cultural history. Finally, we suggest some ways we historians could make our scholarly community emotionally a more supportive one. It might be good to remember that our discussion concerns primarily the Finnish academic world, and the situation in other countries might be slightly different.
The story of the Polish nuclear research facility in Świerk has always been closely linked to the political and social changes underway in the country – as Ewa, Anna, Maryla, Agata, Maria, and Wanda have all borne witness.
The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, I present the scholarly book publications patterns of Polish scholars. Secondly, I show how scholarly book publications are assessed in various European research evaluation systems. Moreover, I argue that the diversity of evaluation models depends on the scientific policy aims in a given country. This presentation of European models allows me to discuss a new Polish science policy instrument, that is the list of publishers prepared for the upcoming evaluation exercise in 2021. In 2018, the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland implemented a new model of scholarly book publication assessment based on the list of publishers. On the one hand, such a science policy instrument might be a way to appreciate the best quality scholarly books and give them more points than articles in the evaluation exercise. On the other hand, it is a so far unknown instrument which differentiates publications that have been treated the same up to date. Additionally, this paper aims to shed some light on how the new Polish model was prepared.
The establishment of the Research Network Lukasiewicz (RNL) is aimed at strengthening the research potential and knowledge transfer from research institutes to enterprises. The article presents the results of the research potential analysis of 38 research institutes that are to form the RNL, based on data on scientific publications in 2013–2016. The number of publications of RNL institutes was similar to the number of publications of TNO and VTT institutes but smaller than that of Fraunhofer institutes. The publications of RNL institutes had lower values of indicators of international collaboration and collaboration with business as well as lower values of citation indices. Co-authors of RNL publications were mainly affiliated with national scientific units, whereas co-authorship with Fraunhofer, TNO and VTT institutes was marginal. The article also outlines the limitations and challenges of the adopted research method and future research orientations in this area.
The changes in the paralinguistic (social, economic, cultural) and linguistic sphere influence the quantitative and qualitative changes in a categorically diversified onomastic resource and the communicative flow of its elements on three levels of linguistic contact — nationwide, local and individual. The flow is additionally determined in the sphere of spontaneous everyday communication and in higher communicative functions (official linguistic behaviour). The accumulation of determinants which allow the usage of appropriate names and appellative forms (official and unofficial, e.g. diminutives, feminisms) involves the application of cumulative research methods, including psycho-, socio- and pragmalinguistic description of proper names functioning in communication. The contemporary theory of discourse in its three dimensions — formal, functional and interactional gives this possibility. It also requires the constant specification and standardization of Neoslavonic onomastic terminology.
The term “metalearning”, which was introduced into scientific literature by J. Biggs (1985) is, broadly speaking, an awareness of one’s own learning process and exercising control over it. Metalearning, whose roots lie in the personal, early experiences of the child related to learning, and which is expressed in her or his current concepts – is considered in this article as a basic condition for the acquisition of one of the key competences of 21st century man, namely, the learning competence. Recognizing the importance of colloquial concepts of learning, as well as their uniqueness and contextuality – in the article I will present the main problems associated with learning about the vision and understanding of the personal worlds of the learning of pupils, coming at the end of early education. On the basis of analysis of the scientific literature and previous studies conducted abroad, as well as a number of my own research projects (resulting from the application of quantitative or qualitative approach), I will present questions, doubts and selected emerging difficulties in the application of both the presented research approaches.
In the era of transition to a low-carbon economy, optimal use of the developmental resources within urban regions expresses the need to limit suburbanization and increase the energy efficiency. Solutions are sought as an alternative for the suburban housing estates embodying the image high-quality life in the American Dream style. Aspects of the urban innovation, serving the public sector as a tool for improvement of the quality in residential environment, are considered in the article. Selected examples (mainly German) are described with reference to 1) the changes in the standards of housing development, 2) large-scale renewal programs for residential areas, 3) development and dissemination of urban design (the technique). The interaction between scientific research and the implementation sphere, remaining in the hands of local governments, is important here. Synergy, at a local level, is of key importance in at least four aspects in urban development: 1) solving complex, atypical problems, 2) the public sector being a strong (independent) partner, 3) adaptation of foreign concepts, from other planning systems/cultures and morphologically different urban structures, 4) strengthening the position in relations with the EU.
The article presents a comparative analysis of various classifi cations of both sciences’ and management sciences’ paradigms in terms of their pragmatism and adequacy regarding organization research. Furthermore, the aim of the article is also to justify the thesis about the high usefulness of research model proposed by Keneth D. Strang. Strang’s model, based on the concept of researcher’s socio-cultural philosophy, allows on the one hand to overcome the theoretical incommensurability and on the other hand makes it possible for representatives of various paradigms to cooperate with each other. The article contains also refl ections on the paradigm as a key factor affecting both the development of management sciences and the practice of management. The choice of a specifi c paradigm, i.e. research ideology, has a decisive impact on the results of research, as well as the generalization of practice. The paradigm defi nes the research strategy, selection of research methods and inference rules. Furthermore, it infl uences the education process, and thus has an impact on shaping the worldview of scientists, entrepreneurs as well as managers.
To accept science as a tool of cognition of this what is unknown, and teaching which serves popularization of knowledge in society, the scientific committees of PAS should integrate scientists within the Country and on the background of world science progress. However, scientific associations should propagate their field knowledge and join and consolidate researchers and people within the area of their interest. To realize this, the scientific committees must represent all scientific centers in our Country and all research directions and so called schools of research. Because of this, the procedure of election of the committees’ representatives has to be changed.
According to the psycho-lexical approach in the taxonomy of individual differences, those interpersonal differences, which are the most important for social functioning of individual, have been encoded into natural languages. Therefore by analyzing the lexicons of interpersonal differences, it is possible to identify structures of their descriptions. Application of the psycho-lexical approach in the field of psychology of individual differences lead to obtaining the relatively high consistency regarding scientific taxonomy of personality traits. Also models developed on this basis meet the most important criteria of goodness of the psychological structural models. As a result, the accumulation of knowledge about person’s psychological functioning have been intensified. The aim of the article is to present the specificity of lexical studies and their taxonomical potential for social sciences, as well as key threats and limitations, based on experience of previous psycho-lexical research.