Conservation of the Old Town Zamość began to realize almost a hundred years ago. Then the eminent preachers of culture in the early period. 20.year inter-made idea of restoring the prestige of the works of Polish culture. The idea of protecting national cultural heritage grew gradually until such time as the first scientific research, development of standards and principles of care and maintenance. Today Zamość was inscribed on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Many things made, much remains to be done.
This paper presents a set of concepts aiming at the reconstruction of mechanisms of the development of economic space. These concepts are ordered in the way that consecutive concepts add new pieces of knowledge increasing the degree of cognition of the mechanisms of economic space. This set includes among others: shift from one steady-state to the next steady-states, selforganization and the development out of equilibrium, multiple equilibrium, punctuated equilibrium, innovation in the phase transition, pulsative course of development process, emergence of complex spatial systems, development code of the system of regions.
The paper presents the results of diachronic analysis of independent grammatical morphemes which function in the grammatical systems of Chadic languages. The following markers are being considered: genitive-linking morpheme, subject and object markers, copula, focus marker. Etymologically, the markers are traced back to Chadic (and Afroasiatic) system of determiners identified by the three phonological elements, namely *n, *t, and *k which have their vestiges in contemporary systems. It is claimed that what is a retention on phonological ground, contributes to innovation processes on the grammatical level.
This paper considers the problem of reconstructing a class of generalized sampled signals of which a special case occurs in, e.g., a generalized sampling system due to non-ideal analysis basis functions. To this end, we propose an improved reconstruction system and a reconstruction algorithm based on generalized inverse, which can be viewed as a reconstruction method that reduces reconstruction error as well. The key idea is to add an additional channel into a generalized sampling system and apply the generalized inverse theory to the reconstruction algorithm. Finally, the approach is applied, respectively, to an oscilloscope, which shows the proposed method yields better performance as compared to the existing technique.
The tarsometatarsus, a compound bone from the lower leg in birds, is the most important skeletal element in fossil penguin taxonomy, especially in the case of early members of this group. However, any attempt to go beyond the problem of mere classification obviously requires the better understanding of osteological traits under consideration. This in turn touches on the issue of interplay between bone and concomitant soft−tissue structures, such as muscles, tendons and vessels. This paper focuses on the more holistic comprehension of the tarsometatarsal section of the Eocene penguin foot, based on the analysis of the myology and the vascular system of its modern counterparts. A number of graphical reconstructions are provided with a discussion of the role of the hypotarsus and inter− metatarsal foramina.
The paper presents a procedure for correction of the error of an ECG signal, introduced by the skin-electrode interface. This procedure involves three main measuring-calculating stages: parametrical identification of the mathematical model of the interface, realized directly before the diagnostic measurements, registration of the signal at the output of electrodes as well as reconstruction of the input signal of the interface. The first two stages are realized in the on-line mode, whereas the operation of signal reconstruction presents a numerical task of digital signal processing and is realized in the off-line mode through deconvolution of the registered signal with the transfer function of the skin-electrode interface. The aim of the paper is to discuss in detail the procedure of parametric identification of the skin-electrode interface with the use of a computer system equipped with a DAQ card and LabVIEW software. The algorithm for error correction introduced by this interface is also presented.
My series “Some Berber Etymologies” is to gradually reveal the still unknown immense Afro-Asiatic heritage in the Berber lexical stock. The first part with some miscellaneous Berber etymologies was published back in 1996. Recently, I continued the series according to initial root consonants1 in course of my research for the volumes of the “Etymological Dictionary of Egyptian” (abbreviated as EDE, Leiden, since 1999, Brill)2 with a much more extensive lexicographical apparatus on the cognate Afro-Asiatic daughter languages. As for the present part, it greatly exploits the results of my ongoing work for the the fourth volume of EDE (analyzining the Eg. lexical stock with initial n-). The present part contains etymologies of Berber roots with initial *n- followed by dental stops. The numeration of the entries continues that of the preceding parts of this series. In order to spare room, I quote those well-attested and widespread lexical roots that appear common Berber, only through a few illustrative examples. The underlying regular consonant correspondences between Berber vs. Afro-Asiatic agree with those established by the Russian team of I.M. Diakonoff and summarized by A.Ju. Militarev (1991, 242–3).
This study presents the results of dendrochronological and dendroclimatological research of Betula pubescens from four sites in northern Norway (Kvaløya Island, Tromsøya Island and Storelva Valley), which provided a 193-year chronology. Our results highlight the importance of the site selection in dendroclimatological studies. We demonstrated that activity of geomorphic processes connected with local topography could led to reduced strength of climatic signal embedded in tree-ring data. Negative pointer years, triggered mainly by unfavourable climatic conditions and insect outbreaks, were common for all site chronologies in 1945, 1955, 1965, 1975, 1986, 2004. However, some site-specific differences were also distinguished. Response function analysis confirmed that June, July and August temperatures were positively correlated with tree-ring widths. This climate-growth relationship was stable throughout the years 1925-2000. From summer temperature reconstruction back to AD 1820, two colder (c. 1835-1850 and 1890-1920) and two warmer (c. 1825-1835 and 1920-1940) periods were identified. The tree-ring record from the Tromsø Region, well correlated between series, sites and climate variables, is an important element of a large-scale reconstruction of pre-instrumental climate variation in the northeastern part of the Atlantic Ocean. Our dendroclimatic reconstruction corresponds well with other climate proxy data, like fluctuations of mountain glaciers in Scandinavia or sea ice extent.
An original model based on first principles is constructed for the temporal correlation of acoustic waves propagating in random scattering media. The model describes the dynamics of wave fields in a previously unexplored, moderately strong (mesoscopic) scattering regime, intermediate between those of weak scattering, on the one hand, and diffusing waves, on the other. It is shown that by considering the wave vector as a free parameter that can vary at will, one can provide an additional dimension to the data, resulting in a tomographic-type reconstruction of the full space-time dynamics of a complex structure, instead of a plain spectroscopic technique. In Fourier space, the problem is reduced to a spherical mean transform defined for a family of spheres containing the origin, and therefore is easily invertible. The results may be useful in probing the statistical structure of various random media with both spatial and temporal resolution.
The paper presents a new method of surface topology reconstruction from a white light interferogram. The method is based on interferogram modelling by complex exponents (Prony method). The compatibility of white light interferogram and Prony models has already been proven. Effectiveness of the method was tested by modelling and examining reconstruction of tilted and spherical surfaces, and by estimating the reconstruction accuracy.
The agglomeration of particles is a process that modifies the physical properties of a product originally manufactured as a powder. During milk powder agglomeration of fluidized bed, resulting agglomerates are sufficiently porous to improve the solubility of the final product but, at the same time, their rigidity decreases and agglomerates can be destroyed during packing. The porosity and rigidity properties depend on both the volume and shape characteristics of the agglomerates. This paper presents a three-dimensional reconstruction technique based on a laser displacement sensor (LDS) applied to characterize milk agglomerates. This technique allows three-dimensional scanning to estimate particle volume and extract shape parameters such as: sphericity, elongation and flatness ratio, shape factor and aspect ratio. This technique was implemented using a mechatronic device with two degrees of freedom. The device is composed of an angular positioning system to rotate the agglomerate and a linear positioning system to displace the LDS. Experimental result allows agglomerates classification according to shape parameters
The objective of the study was to create a printable 3D model of the sellar region of the sphenoid bone for demonstrating anatomical variant of the osseous bridging between anterior and posterior clinoid processes. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the middle cranial fossa along with 3D printed model, allow for accurate depicting position of the interclinoid bridge with reference to other basicranial structures.
The quality of the supplied power by electricity utilities is regulated and of concern to the end user. Power quality disturbances include interruptions, sags, swells, transients and harmonic distortion. The instruments used to measure these disturbances have to satisfy minimum requirements set by international standards. In this paper, an analysis of multi-harmonic least-squares fitting algorithms applied to total harmonic distortion (THD) estimation is presented. The results from the different least-squares algorithms are compared with the results from the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm. The algorithms are assessed in the different testing states required by the standards.
The sensor-shifted stereo camera provides the mechanism for obtaining 3D information in a wide field of view. This novel kind of stereo requires a simpler matching process in comparison to convergence stereo. In addition to this, the uncertainty of depth estimation of a target point in 3D space is defined by the spatial quantization caused by the digital images. The dithering approach is a way to reduce the depth reconstruction uncertainty through a controlled adjustment of the stereo parameters that shift the spatial quantization levels. In this paper, a mathematical model that relates the stereo setup parameters to the iso-disparities is developed and used for depth estimation. The enhancement of the depth measurement accuracy for this kind of stereo through applying the dithering method is verified by simulation and physical experiment. For the verification, the uncertainty of the depth measurement using dithering is compared with the uncertainty produced by the direct triangulation method. A 49% improvement of the uncertainly in the depth reconstruction is proved.
The field of mechanical manufacturing is becoming more and more demanding on machining accuracy. It is essential to monitor and compensate the deformation of structural parts of a heavy-duty machine tool. The deformation of the base of a heavy-duty machine tool is an important factor that affects machining accuracy. The base is statically indeterminate and complex in load. It is difficult to reconstruct deformation by traditional methods. A reconstruction algorithm for determining bending deformation of the base of a heavy-duty machine tool using inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is presented. The base is equivalent to a multi-span beam which is divided into beam elements with support points as nodes. The deflection polynomial order of each element is analysed. According to the boundary conditions, the deformation compatibility conditions and the strain data measured by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), the deflection polynomial coefficients of a beam element are determined. Using the coordinate transformation, the deflection equation of the base is obtained. Both numerical verification and experiment were carried out. The deflection obtained by the reconstruction algorithm using iFEM and the actual deflection measured by laser displacement sensors were compared. The accuracy of the reconstruction algorithm is verified.
The task of generating fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) models of objects or scenes through a sequence of non-calibrated images is an active field of research. The recent development in algorithm optimization has resulted in many automatic solutions that can provide an accurate 3D model from texture-full objects. Structure-from-motion (SfM) is an image-based method that uses discriminative point-based feature identifier, such as SIFT, to locate feature points in the images. This method faces difficulties when presented with the objects made of homogenous or texture-less surfaces. To reconstruct such surfaces a well-known technique is to apply an artificial variety by covering the surface with a random texture pattern prior to the image capturing process. In this work, we designed three series of image patterns which are tested based on the contrast and density ratio which increases from the first to the last pattern within the same series. The performance of the patterns is evaluated by reconstructing the surface of a texture-less object and comparing it with the true data. Using the best-found patterns from the experiments, a 3D model of a Moai statue is reconstructed. The experimental results demonstrate that the density and structure of a pattern highly affects the quality of the reconstruction.
This paper presents a set of concepts aiming at the reconstruction of mechanisms of economic space development. These concepts are ordered in the way that consecutive concepts add new pieces of knowledge increasing the degree of cognition of the mechanisms of the economic space. This set includes among others: a shift from one steady-state to the next steady-states, self-organization and the development far from equilibrium, multiple equilibrium, punctuated equilibrium, innovation in the phase transition, a pulsative course of the development process, an emergence of complex spatial systems, a development code of the system of regions.
In order to understand commands given through voice by an operator, user or any human, a robot needs to focus on a single source, to acquire a clear speech sample and to recognize it. A two-step approach to the deconvolution of speech and sound mixtures in the time-domain is proposed. At first, we apply a deconvolution procedure, constrained in the sense, that the de-mixing matrix has fixed diagonal values without non-zero delay parameters. We derive an adaptive rule for the modification of the de-convolution matrix. Hence, the individual outputs extracted in the first step are eventually still self-convolved. This corruption we try to eliminate by a de-correlation process independently for every individual output channel.
Estimating the fundamental frequency and harmonic parameters is basic for signal modelling in a power supply system. Differing from the existing parameter estimation algorithms either in power quality monitoring or in harmonic compensation, the proposed algorithm enables a simultaneous estimation of the fundamental frequency, the amplitudes and phases of harmonic waves. A pure sinusoid is obtained from an input multiharmonic input signal by finite-impulse-response (FIR) comb filters. Proposed algorithm is based on the use of partial derivatives of the processed signal and the weighted estimation procedure to estimate the fundamental frequency, the amplitude and the phase of a multi-sinusoidal signal. The proposed algorithm can be applied in signal reconstruction, spectral estimation, system identification, as well as in other important signal processing problems. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.