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Abstract

The main goal of this article is to characterise and compare some aspects of Hilary Putnam’s referential theory of meaning and Robert B. Brandom’s inferential theory of meaning. I will do it to indicate some similarities and differences in these theories. It will provide an opportunity for a deeper understanding of these theories and for a more adequate evaluation of how they describe and explain the process of meaning acquisition of linguistic expressions. In his theory of meaning Putnam emphasises the importance of reference understood as a relationship which connects linguistic expressions and extra-linguistic (empirical) reality. Brandom acknowledges inference as a main category useful in characterising the meaning of expressions used in premises and a conclusion of inference. But his theory of meaning is criticised for minimalising the role of an empirical component (demonstratives etc.). He tries to defend his standpoint in the anaphoric theory of reference. Putnam like Brandom claimed that we – as cognitive subjects – are not in a situation in which we learn about the extra-linguistic reality in a direct way. It is the reality itself as well as our cognitive apparatus that play a role in a cognitive process.
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Abstract

Air Pollution in Poland – Condition, Causes and Effects. In the recent years the air in Poland seems to be the most polluted in Europe (it is worse only in a few times smaller Bulgaria). The concentration of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), represented by benzo(a)pyrene are among the highest in European Union countries. They are highly toxic, especially PAHS, which damage the hematopoietic system, accumulate in living organisms leading to a cancerous process, they cause damages to the central nervous system and infertility. It is estimated that high air pollution causes 45-47 thousands premature deaths in Poland every year, as well as growth frequency of allergies and chronic diseases. Polish society loses about 520,000 potential years of life, and the economy of 18.5 million work days. It’s a very high price. The weather determines to a large extent the air pollution. The smog episode is usually accompanied by low wind speed or atmospheric silence, reduction of visibility and thermal inversions. However, the biggest problem is low emission, which is mainly related to individual heating of buildings (78-87% of the total emission of benzo(a)pyrene. The reasons for such poor sanitary condition of the air in Poland are complex and to a large extent they result from spatial chaos and lack of spatial planning, but also from general policy country. The most important reasons are i.a.: the lack of a planning policy and a sustainable transport policy, persistent subsidies for unprofitable coal mines, the lack of a policy promoting renewable energy sources and “clean” technologies, high gas price (the highest in Europe) and no subsidies for the poorest, scattered buildings which hinders access to system heat, inefficient and unsuitable transport based on road transport road and individual cars (often old, Diesel) etc.
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