The aim of this study was to analyse and identify specific buffalo seminal plasma proteins (SPPs) responsible for sperm cryotolerance during low temperature storage. Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) of the motility and viability of buffalo spermatozoa was performed before freezing and after thawing. Two sample groups were formed – ejaculates with high cryotol- erance (group A) and low cryotolerance (group B). CASA demonstrated that the initial progres- sive motility after thawing of the spermatozoa in group A is significantly higher than in group B (p<0.001). Group B showed a significant increase in the percentage of static and non-progressive spermatozoa at 240 min, when compared to group A (p<0.05). SPPs, proteins in the cryoprotec- tive medium (PM) and proteins in the mixture of PM and SP were separated by High Perfor- mance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Comparative analysis of the chromatographic profiles was performed to identify specific proteins related to sperm cryotolerance. SPPs profiles showed 5 distinct protein peaks in both groups, ranging from 500 kDa to 50 Da. Chromatograms of group A and group B showed quantitative and qualitative differences in protein content. Chromato- grams of proteins in PM showed 11 well-expressed peaks. HPLC analysis of the mixtures of SPPs from the two groups and PM visualized the formation of a new bio-complex structure expressed by a protein peak specific for group A (7.674 min, AU 1.50). This protein peak can be referred as a phenotypic trait for buffalo ejaculates with high sperm cryotolerance.
Humidity is probably the most important abiotic factor influencing life cycles, distribution, survival, and population dynamics of stored product pests. Although most of these pests can complete their life cycles in any given relative humidity, their prolonged development time, as well as decreased emergence rate and fecundity, have been well documented in several previous studies. In the present study, we evaluated the changes in energetic substances (lipids, soluble carbohydrates, glycogen, and proteins) accumulated in different life stages of larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum in response to different relative humidity levels (5, 12, 22, 30, 45, and 65%). The results showed that young larvae were more susceptible to low relative humidity levels and desiccation stress. Larvae tended to accumulate higher proportions of lipids during earlier stages while their energy content shifted towards proteins with an increase in their age. Adult beetles experienced a significant decrease in their protein content immediately after they initiated reproduction. The importance of these fluctuations in the biology of the red flour beetles was discussed in detail.
Sewage and solid waste can be a valuable source of materials used directly or indirectly in manufacturing of usable products. These processes are associated with elimination of pollutants from liquid and solid wastes. The best-known methods of waste management are production of biogas and composting. This paper focuses on the possibility of obtaining biomass as a source of protein feed (whose value, in terms of the composition of aminoacids and microelements, is comparable with conventional feed, e.g. soymeal, bonemeal or fishmeal). Sewage components for bacterial, fungal, algal and vascular plants’ culture are characterized as a source of protein feed. Methods of industrial scale production of enzymes, mainly proteases and lipases that have broad applications in various industries, are discussed. Development perspectives of inexpensive methods of usable products from waste production are showed. Interdisciplinary nature of presented issues, which requires cooperation of specialists in biology, chemistry and technology, is emphasized.
The aim of this study was to measure serum neopterin and C-reactive protein (CRP) concen- trations in female dogs with mammary tumours and evaluate the association between the values of these indicators and some clinical characteristics of the tumour. Fifty three female dogs were used for this study, including 43 dogs with mammary gland tumours (10 benign and 33 malignant) and 10 healthy controls. The concentrations of neopterin and CRP were determined using the ELISA technique and commercial ELISA kits. The mean serum neopterin concentration in fe- male dogs with mammary tumours was lower than in healthy dogs, but significant difference was not found. Similarly, there were no significant differences in neopterin concentrations in female dogs based on tumour size, tumour ulceration and metastasis. The mean CRP concentration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in dogs with malignant tumours compared to dogs with benign tu- mours and control. Furthermore, serum CRP concentration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in dogs with metastatic malignant tumours compared to dogs with non-metastatic mammary tu- mours. The CRP concentration was significantly lower (p<0.05) in dogs with tumours less than 3 cm compared to those with larger tumours, and significantly higher in dogs with ulcerated tu- mours compared to those without ulceration. Our findings suggest that the neoplastic process in the mammary gland does not cause significant changes in serum neopterin concentrations in dogs. Higher concentrations of serum CRP in dogs with advanced stages of malignant tumours may suggest that CRP could be a potential prognostic marker in canine malignant mammary tu- mours, but this hypothesis needs further study.
Professor Agnieszka Chacińska from the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology talks about her research on mitochondrial proteins and their association with neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic disorders.
Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) constitutes a diverse group of bacterial strains that cause canker of stone fruits, blight of cereals and red streak of sugarcane. The purpose of this study was to determine how diverse Iranian strains of Pss are when they come from different hosts. We compared a total of 32 Pss strains isolated from stone fruits, barley, wheat and sugarcane from different geographical regions of Iran based on their phenotypic and molecular properties. Strains showed some variation regarding carbon and nitrogen utilization. Pss strains were similar in their protein banding patterns. Additional bands were found in sugarcane strains. Most strains showed one indigenous plasmid DNA and a few had two and some none. The genes of syrB and syrD encoding syringomycin synthesis and secretion, respectively, were amplified using specific primers in polymerase chain reaction. Syringomycin, producing strains amplified two DNA fragments of 752 and 446 bp representing syrB and syrD genes, respectively. Primer specificity was shown for Pss using various genera. Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that Pss strains from different hosts and geographical regions show diversity in phenotypic and molecular characters. It is thought that phenotypic variation is due to adaptation to specific hosts and niches for survival and pathogenicity.
The measured rate of release of intercellular protein from yeast cells by ultrasonication was applied for evaluating the effects of sonication reactor geometry on cell disruption rate and for validation of the simulation method. Disintegration of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been investigated experimentally using a batch sonication reactor equipped with a horn type sonicator and an ultrasonic processor operating at the ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The results have shown that the rate of release of protein is directly proportional to the frequency of the emitter surface and the square of the amplitude of oscillations and strongly depends on the sonication reactor geometry. The model based on the Helmholtz equation has been used to predict spatial distribution of acoustic pressure in the sonication reactor. Effects of suspension volume, horn tip position, vessel diameter and amplitude of ultrasound waves on the spatial distribution of pressure amplitude have been simulated. A strong correlation between the rate of protein release and the magnitude of acoustic pressure and its spatial distribution has been observed. This shows that modeling of acoustic pressure is useful for optimization of sonication reactor geometry.
The application of immune serum is one of the most efficient method used formerly in the protection of raised piglets’/weaners’ health . The objective of the study was to determine specific antibody response during hyperimmunization of fatteners with a self-prepared subunit vaccine, and to propose production method of immune serum against Gram-negative bacteria antigens. The vaccine was administered every two weeks, 4 times. Individual and pooled serum samples were assayed for IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against Histophilus somni recombinant Hsp60, H.somni rOMP40 and Pasteurella multocida LPS. Additionally total serum IgG and haptoglobin concentrations were measured. Two weeks after the first vaccination IgM antibody raised significantly against H.s. rOMP40 and LPS, whereas after 4 weeks it increased against rHsp60 antigens. Anti-LPS IgM antibody raised up stepwise till the end of the observation, but IgM antibody against H.s. rHsp60 and H.s. rOMP40 decreased in further samplings. A significant raise in IgG class H.s. rHsp60- -antibody was found 4 weeks after the first immunization and a similar raise against two remain- ing antigens after 6 weeks. The intensity of the reaction increased till the end of the experiment. The raise in IgA antibody level was observed only for H.s. rHsp60 antigen. Clinically observed, proper animal health and welfare were confirmed by haptoglobin concentration, which remained in physiological range. At least 4 booster doses were necessary to obtain hyperimmune serum containing a high level of antibodies against examined antigens. The number of immunizations influenced response profiles for specific IgM, IgG, IgA antibodies.
SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was used to study the effect of NaCl on protein expression in two cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.): Edkawi (salt-tolerant) and Castle rock (salt-sensitive). Five-day-old seedlings were grown on MS agar media supplemented with 0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mM NaCl. Two days after treatment the seedlings were examined to determine the effect of salt on their growth and to relate that to protein banding variations. Gel analysis showed differences in at least 4 protein bands with molecular weights at 20, 25, 45 and 65 kDa. These proteins were induced in the 50 mM NaCl treatment in the salt-sensitive cultivar, then decreasing to undetectability at higher concentrations. In the salt-tolerant cultivar, most of the proteins exhibited a more or less steady expression pattern and maintained expression through the 200 mM NaCl treatment. All proteins gave weak or no expression signals at 300 mM NaCl, the treatment that proved lethal. Differentially expressed bands were identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The putative function of each identified protein in relation to salt stress is discussed.
The article presents personal memories of Professor Aleksander Koj’s alumni. Professor Aleksander Koj was a world-class biochemist of significant scientific achievements, a renowned authority in the field of acute-phase response regulation and acute-phase proteins. He was an excellent academic, a true Master, admired and followed by many Polish biochemists. Thrice he served as the Rector of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. He navigated the University through a difficult time of political transformation in Poland, modernized the management system of the University and led to the commencement of the construction of the new University campus. He was the co-creator and the first Chairman of the Conference of Rectors of Academic Schools in Poland. He will be remembered as a devoted community worker aiming at strengthening the bond between the Polish community abroad and our homeland, propagating knowledge, promoting the concept of European integration, democracy and tolerance, as well as the collaboration between scientists, artists and men and women of culture. He was wise, righteous, and noble. Many had the honor of calling him their friend, and a great many saw in him a moral authority.