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Number of results: 5
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Abstract

Natural sounds are essential elements for ecosystems, and therefore necessary for many ecological functions, forming what is called “natural soundscapes”. The Natural Reserve Laguna del Portil (NRLP), located in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula, is an ecosystem which was declared by Spanish authorities as Protected Natural Reserve. In the south area of the NRLP, there is a regional road with high traffic intensity, which affects the soundscapes of this natural reserve. In this study, the road potential noise impact on the natural sounds of the NLRP is analysed. This analysis was done both in winter and summer, and also using two independent methods: 1) spatial sampling measures in 43 different points of the NRL; and 2) noise mapping using noise levels prediction software. From the comparison of the results of both methods and seasons the following conclusions were reached: 1) an approach to the natural soundscape of NRLP both in winter and summer, 2) the acoustic impact of the road on the NRLP, and 3) the variation of the traffic noise depending on the distance to the road, and its seasonal variation. This study could be to improve the management of the NRLP and to help to preserve the natural soundscape of the reserve.
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Abstract

The book focuses on the issue of nature protection in urban areas. The subject matter of the research was the formal and legal conditions of protected areas in cities. The analysis regarded Polish and global solutions in the scope of the nature protection categories in urban areas, objectives of creating urban protected areas and instruments for fulfi lling the aims of protection in the spatial aspect. The research on globally applied solutions in the scope of nature protection was based on the analysis of source literature and legal acts on nature conservation in cities situated in various countries. As a result, four major types of urban protected areas were distinguished in 80 different cities. The research enabled formulating major characteristics of urban protected areas. Those were, in particular: the integrated approach to the protection of natural and cultural resources and equal treatment of the natural and social objectives of protection. This was the basis for a critical analysis of domestic solutions in the subject matter. The research on formal and legal conditions for the functioning of protected areas in Polish cities was conducted in the administrative borders of voivodeship capitals. The research included 18 cities in total. The analysis concerned basic documents related to the widely understood management of protected areas, including, in particular: legal acts establishing individual protected areas and protected areas management plans, as well as the studies of conditions and directions for the spatial development of communes and local spatial development plans. The research work regarded spatial forms of nature protection, including: national parks, natural reserves, regional parks, protected landscape areas, Natura 2000 areas, ecological sites, documentation sites and nature-landscape complexes. The research included 229 protected areas in total. For the abovementioned protected areas, the following aspects were analyzed: subject matter and objectives of their protection, premises for creating their functional and spatial infrastructure and methods for their development, as well as the scope of provisions in urban spatial planning documents in the abovementioned respect. The research enabled identifying the key problems in the functioning of protected areas in Polish cities, including: • small stability of regulations on nature protection and consequential lack of continuity in the protection of naturally valuable areas, • noticeable tendency to loosen the regulations in the subjected scope, which leads to marginalizing the issues of nature protection while planning urban development. • no coordination of actions performed by various stakeholders in regard to the protected areas, • failure to adjust nature protection objectives to conditions resulting from the location in urban areas, • lack of efficient tools to fulfi ll the nature protection objectives in the spatial aspect. Based on the identifi ed models of environmental protection in urban areas, premises were formulated with regard to the new model for environmental protection in Polish cities. Three scenarios were proposed with regard to potential changes: modification-oriented, reorganization-oriented and radical. The modification-oriented scenario includes: • adding the social aspect to the objectives of nature protection in cities, • extending the scope of the nature conservation act of new nature protection categories appropriate for urban areas, • increasing the importance of the study of conditions and directions for the spatial development and protection plans with regard to the planning permission. Reorganization-oriented scenario provides for: • verifying the objectives of nature protection, • introducing the obligation to prepare management plans for all protected areas in cities, • introducing the obligation to update and prepare development plans for areas were nature conservation areas were established. The radical scenario includes: • introducing new categories of nature protection in urban areas, including categories that ensure preserving and shaping the connectivity of protected area, • exposing ecosystem services as the major motif of nature protection in cities, • introducing new instruments for managing protected areas in cities. Applying one of the abovementioned scenarios may signifi cantly improve the efficiency of natural protection in cities. It may also contribute to introducing a more innovative model for urban nature protection. Each scenarios will entail the implementation of quite significant legislative changes, either in the scope of nature protection and spatial planning.
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Abstract

Fortyfication Objects of Prussian Ring Fortresses in Poznań and Wrocław (from XIX–XX Cent.) in Current Spatial Planning Documents – Functioning, Protection, Landscape Shaping, Fortifications are valuable elements of cultural heritage of many Polish cities. Unfortunately, in many cases they are not properly used and protected, although some of them have the status of historical monuments. Potentially, tools for strengthening protection of fortifications are provided by spatial planning system. The research was based on detailed analysis of the Study of the Conditions and Directions of the Spatial Management of a Communes and Local Spatial Management Plans, including the area of ring fortresses in Poznań and Wrocław. In the Study of the Conditions and Directions of the Spatial Management of a Commune of both cities one can find references to the location and use of ring fortifications. The area of fortification objects in Poznan is covered by 9 Local Spatial Management Plans, 5 further plans covering the fortifications are in preparation. The area of ring fortress in Wroclaw were covered by 9 Local Spatial Management Plans. The results of the analysis of the spatial planning documents show that the tools used to protect the fortifications offered by the spatial planning system are not fully exploited. The context and landscape values of the fortifications are ignored in most of the plans. Also one can find in spatial planning documents the lack of attempts to link fortress greenery to the greenery system, and, in the case of Wroclaw, the lack of describing fortification greenery as a valuable asset. In most cases, principals of the fortifications objects protection are not enough detailed.
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Abstract

The article presents the problem of the settlements development in the Ojców National Park (ONP) and its buffer zone, both located in the suburban area of Cracow (Poland). The aim of the research was to recognize the social perception of this phenomenon, as well as the residents opinion about the limitations in spatial management related to the functioning of the Park. Interviews were made among 204 residents, and 40 representatives of local self-governments, cultural institutions, associations, administrators of tourist facilities and entrepreneurs. The local community perceives constraints in the new buildings construction and in enlargement or modernization of the existing ones as the main problem for people living in the ONP or its buffer zone. Driven by their particular interests, residents advocate the further development of the settlements and tourist infrastructure within the Park and the buffer zone, the liberalization of regulations, and even the liquidation of the Park’s buffer zone. They do not understand that the natural and landscape values (highly appreciated by them) can be degraded due to these activities.
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Abstract

The article concerns issues related to need of the introduction of protection prognostic areas, prospective resources pursuant to the new regulations of integrated development and space management in Poland. The article discuss the issues of actual and crucial documents and it also contains some critic and detailed analysis of the documents such as: the Responsible Development Strategy (SOR), Integrated National Development Strategy (ZSRK), Poland Integrated Development Strategy (SZRP). Author also analyzes whether the level of the implementation with the provisions motioned above is compliant with work in the committees reviewing issues in accordance with the work of the inter-ministerial teams for the updating and monitoring the strategy of development, set up at the Coordination Committee for Development Policy. The article indicates, among others, the increase of the legislative risk for the geological-mining or energy industry, the commodity sector. The risk may affect the crucial matters for the industry (functional areas, ICPs, the basis of their recognition in planning documents – taken into consideration as an element in the integrated management system of development). After all the analysis of the current provision, the article contains the summary with the main conclusions.
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