This research deals with problems of low standardization of words in the Gamo textbooks, an Afroasiatic Omotic language of Ethiopia. Problems of designating one concept in two or more words, using different linguistic forms for the same grammatical function and degeminating and shortening long consonant and vowel segments were observed. These problems reduce the quality of the textbooks and mother tongue education and put pedagogical and cognitive burden on students.
The starting point of the study on the problems, dilemmas and hopes for effective implementation of revitalization projects in Polish cities was the conviction that revitalization is one of the processes affecting the development and changes in the spatial and functional fabric of cities. Revitalization is defined as a deliberate and purposeful process, the effect of which is to restore life in the dysfunctional and degraded parts of cities. Taking up such a topic required an answer to the question about the nature of revitalization and its aspects. The focus of the study was on the problems of revitalization that stem from the legal and socio-economic situation and the dilemmas faced by local government authorities of Polish cities. The introduction to these considerations is the brief outline of the revitalization of Polish cities in the period after World War II, while the conclusion deals with the fears and hopes related to revitalization activities that are presently initiated. The discussion takes into account the existing, critically assessed, legal regulations on revitalization.
O b j e c t i v e s: Pill-takers seem to have some deficiencies in developing problem-solving styles, in which it plays an important role in their mental health. The present study has aimed to examine the role of problem-solving styles in individuals who have suicidal behavior by taking pills. M e t h o d s: This research is a case-control study in which 100 people who had attempted to commit suicide by taking pills and had gone to the toxicity emergency room of the Razi Educational and Therapeutic center in Rasht city, were compared with 100 normal people who were selected as the control group. These two groups of people were compared with each other in terms of their problem-solving styles (which is measured using Cassidy and Long problem solving styles questionnaire). R e s u l t s: After adjusting the effects of the confounding variables, i.e. level of education, marital status, residential status, history of psychiatry and alcohol addiction, it became clear that pill-takers group in comparison with the control group scores significantly higher in the non-adaptive problem-solving styles i.e. helplessness, problem-solving control, and avoidance styles (P < 0.0001) and also lower scores in adaptive styles, i.e. creative, confidence and approach styles (P < 0.0001). The interactive effects of group membership and gender were not significant in any of the problem-solving styles (P < 0.05). C o n c l u s i o n s: Problem-solving styles are regarded as important risk factors when it comes to attempting to commit suicide by taking pills. Thus, it is essential to teach problem-solving styles to at-risk patients in order to preventing suicidal behavior.
Karl Marx (and also Friedrich Engels, by the way) was – contrary to his own opinion – an author of several utopias which played a role in the 20th century. The question (which is of both historical-philosophical and historical-empirical character) therefore arises how important this role was. The author focuses on the characteristics of Marxian utopias, and specifically – on their axiological content and current relevance. According to the author, Marx’s utopias can be a convenient starting point for searching for various projects (political, economic, technological etc.) necessary to cope with global challenges that mankind faces in our time. The author is also considering Marx’s motives for a critical approach to utopias and points to those of them which in his opinion should be accepted, while distinguishing them from others which should be rejected.
The article presents the development of industrial cities: Zabrze, Bytom and Gliwice regarding the background of historical changes, the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors. The development of these cities was connected with trade, hard coal mining and heavy industry. These cities were interconnected administratively, communicatively and economically. They changed their nationality and joined other towns. The different concepts of authorities regarding urban spaces and the profile of a given city were implemented. The influence of various factors, taking place even historically distant time, related to the city’s development concepts and shaping their centers, has become one of the challenges that cities are trying to meet. The activity of various entities in the city center is a measure of the attractiveness of the city itself. Examples of cities: Zabrze, Bytom and Gliwice show the diff erence in the situation in which each of these cities is located.
In this article I present the main assumptions and discuss issues of pedagogy as a science and the field of education during a special meeting of the Committee of the Academy of Pedagogical Sciences at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan. I focus on the institutional leaders in science teaching who are rectors and deans of Faculties of Education in Poland. Moreover, they are co-authors of relevant teaching and research solutions in science teaching. In the age of growing crisis in the academic community we can, as educators, discuss how no to be to be surprised by pathogenic processes and events, but how to be able to counteract them. Furthermore, how to show representatives of other academic disciplines and structures of learning, how to deal with common to us problems.
Electromagnetic arrangements which create a magnetic field of required distribution and magnitude are widely used in electrical engineering. Development of new accurate designing methods is still a valid topic of technical investigations. From the theoretical point of view the problem belongs to magnetic fields synthesis theory. This paper discusses a problem of designing a shape of a solenoid which produces a uniform magnetic field on its axis. The method of finding an optimal shape is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) coupled with Bézier curves.
The paper discusses some of the recent advances in kriging based worst-case design optimisation and proposes a new two-stage approach to solve practical problems. The efficiency of the infill points allocation is improved significantly by adding an extra layer of optimisation enhanced by a validation process.
In the paper the thermal processes proceeding in the solidifying metal are analyzed. The basic energy equation determining the course of solidification contains the component (source function) controlling the phase change. This component is proportional to the solidification rate ¶ fS/¶ t (fS Î [0, 1], is a temporary and local volumetric fraction of solid state). The value of fS can be found, among others, on the basic of laws determining the nucleation and nuclei growth. This approach leads to the so called micro/macro models (the second generation models). The capacity of internal heat source appearing in the equation concerning the macro scale (solidification and cooling of domain considered) results from the phenomena proceeding in the micro scale (nuclei growth). The function fS can be defined as a product of nuclei density N and single grain volume V (a linear model of crystallization) and this approach is applied in the paper presented. The problem discussed consists in the simultaneous identification of two parameters determining a course of solidification. In particular it is assumed that nuclei density N (micro scale) and volumetric specific heat of metal (macro scale) are unknown. Formulated in this way inverse problem is solved using the least squares criterion and gradient methods. The additional information which allows to identify the unknown parameters results from knowledge of cooling curves at the selected set of points from solidifying metal domain. On the stage of numerical realization the boundary element method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are presented.
On 24th March, 2017 Professor Józef Kozielecki passed away. He was a world renowned psychologist, a researcher into cognitive processes: thinking, problem solving, decision making. Professor Kozielecki was an author of the psychological theory of decision making, the theory of self-knowledge, and a founding father of the new direction in psychology, psychotransgressionism. An outstanding scholar, intellectual, theacher and a formative mentor for several generations of psychologists. He authored multiple important psychological monographs, for which he received national and international awards, for example, The Japanese Science Foundation award (1980) for his work on decision theory and The Jurzykowski Cultural Foundation award (1990) for his transgressive model of human beings. Professor Józef Kozielecki was a member of several prominent scientific societies such as the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, the Society for Judgment and Decision making and the European Society for Cognitive Psychology. He was also an Ordinary Member of the Polish Academy of Sciences and in 2007 he received the honoris causa doctorate from the Catholic University of Lublin.
From a historical point of view, Peter F. Strawson’s philosophical studies are an important element within contemporary interdisciplinary investigations of the mind-body problem. The aim of this article is to present and analyze Strawson’s program of descriptive metaphysics, along with the associated conception of persons, that he has proposed. In the second part, I also present his non-reductive naturalism, focusing on two of his analyses that belong to the field of mind-body relations: these concern the problem of other minds, and the question of the nomological reduction of mental states of persons to physical ones (i.e. mind-body identity theory). I then point to several possibilities of using Strawson’s conception of persons in the context of issues raised by other questions linked to the mind-body problem (namely, personal identity as it relates to split-brain persons, and the different phases of a person’s development).
P.F. Strawson and J.L. Austin approach the problem of other minds from different perspectives. Peter Strawson looks at this problem from the perspective of descriptive metaphysics, which largely disregards the concrete situations in which we use mental language. John Austin, on the other hand, believes that to understand what is happening in such situations holds the key to solving the former problem. However, as it turns out, the considerations of both authors in the key fragments rely on similar observations. In addition, Austin’s perspective, which looks at the language from the point of view of its usage, makes it possible to formulate an answer to the Strawson’s critics. This does not exclude the possibility of agreeing with Strawson on the primacy of the reference function of language, if we understand it properly. Ultimately, Strawson and Austin’s approaches do not compete, but complement each other.
Krzysztof Maurin was an extremely versatile intellectual and academic teacher. He worked in mathematics (monograph “Methods of Hilbert space”), philosophy (publication “Karl Jaspers – a philosopher of truthfulness”), theology (essay “The Son of Man as the foundation of great religions”) as well as in psychology and he taught in the Faculty of Physics of the Warsaw University: I was taught by Him during a second half of His life since the beginning of the 70s. Now we are seeing and presenting his various activities in the time analysed by him in senses of quantum and cosmic physics, Heidegger's philosophy, Schweitzer's theology and human and humanitarian psychology. Therefore we remind below his lectures on Medieval Universities, Humboldt's reform, the XIX century mathematics and indeterministic interpretation of quantum mechanics. Then, according to a chronological order, we are switching our attention to Krzysztof Maurin himself as a student of university underground courses during the time do Nazists occupation in Poland, then as a silent university employee resisting communist totalitarian ideology and after 1956, as a methodical professor of the University of Warsaw collaborating with Western Europe scientists such as LDrs GDrding, Werner Heisenberg, Rene Thom and Friedrich von Weizsacker as well as admiring especially intellectual achievements of Hermann Weyl and Martin Heidegger. To the end of biographical considerations we can observe successes and obstacles encountered by Krzysztof Maurin while He has tended to conciliate various or opposite ways of philosophical understanding or social behaving by his beloved thinkers.