This paper describes a new and efficient method for quantifying and detection of the source of distortion caused by a single customer in a case when many other customers exist in a power grid. It is based on measuring distortion power, a component of apparent power that only exists with a nonlinear load. Different definitions for distortion power calculation are investigated. All these definitions show without doubt that the proposed method is feasible. Moreover, this method allows to develop fair and reliable billing schemes for controlling harmonic pollution. Measurement and simulation results confirm the effectiveness and applicability of the method. The proposed solution is suitable for software/hardware upgrade of existing electronic power-meters.
For non-sinusoidal single-phase systems, the classical apparent power has been divided into various components using different techniques. These power resolutions generally aim at to provide a tool for the accurate determination of the maximum power factor achievable with a passive compensator and to measure the load.s nonlinearity degree. This paper presents a current decomposition-based methodology that can be employed for computationally efficient implementation of the widely recognized non-sinusoidal power resolutions. The proposed measurement method and the original expressions of the power resolutions are comparatively evaluated by considering their computational complexity. The results show that the proposed method has a significant advantage in terms of computational efficiency for the simultaneous measurements of the powers when compared with the original expressions. Finally, in this paper, a PC-based power meter is developed using the proposed measurement method via the LabVIEW programme.
Electric energy meters are designed to account energy under sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal conditions, because both, old and new standards for energy meters require testing their accuracy under different conditions. The latest EN 50470 standard increases the range of meter testing under nonsinusoidal conditions, introducing new shapes of test signals such as the phase fired waveform or the burst fired waveform. This paper discusses calibration problems of electronic revenue energy meters for direct connection and for connection through current transformers, and it proposes a new calibration procedure which reproduces normal operating conditions better: three-phase configurations of measurement systems, load range during meter testing or shapes of test signals. Recently, modern Electrical Power Standards, also known as Power Calibrators, enable automatic testing of various types of electrical devices, including electricity meters in their normal operating conditions. This article presents examples of single and multi position fully automatic test systems, which employ Power/Energy Calibrator from Poland as the precision source with programmed waveforms of three phase voltages up to 560 V and currents up to 120 A conforming to EN 50470, or with random waveforms generated by PC software random wave generator. Measurement uncertainty of the energy meters under different nonsinusoidal conditions using a test system with reference to accuracy of the power calibrator or to the reference meter, are discussed. Comparative analysis of test results for different shapes of voltage and current signals is presented in the conclusions of this paper.