In the paper presented have been the results of the analysis of effectiveness of operation of binary power plant consisting of combined two Clausius-Rankine cycles, namely the binary cycle with water as a working fluid in the upper cycle and organic substance as a working fluid in the lower cycle, as well as a single fluid component power plant operating also in line with the C-R cycle for superheated steam, with water as a working fluid. The influence of the parameters of superheated steam in the upper cycle has been assessed as well as the type of working fluid in the lower cycle. The results of calculations have been referred to the single-cycle classical steam power plant operating at the same parameters of superheated steam and the same mass flow rate of water circulating in both cycles. On the basis of accomplished analysis it has been shown that the binary power plant shows a greater power with respect to the reference power plant.
This paper presents a method for assessing the degree of approaching the paper output of the Clausius-Rankine cycle to the Carnot cycle. The computations to illustrate its use were performed for parameters characteristic of the current state of development of condensing power plants as well as in accordance with predicted trends for their further enhancing. Moreover there are presented computations of energy dissipation in the machines and devices working in such a cycle.
The paper is devoted to the problems of exergetic cost determination. A brief description of theoretical fundamentals of exergetic cost determination and its application are presented. The applied method of calculations is based on the rules of determination of cumulative exergy consumption. The additional possibilities ensured by the exergetic cost analysis in comparison to the direct exergy consumption analysis are discussed. The presented methodology was applied for the analysis of influence of operational parameters on exergetic cost indices of steam power plant. Results of calculations concern one of the modern Polish power plant unit. Basing on the obtained results several conclusions have been formulated that show advantages of application of exergetic cost analyses.
Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element present in the lithosphere, and it constitutes one of the major inorganic nutrient elements of many plants. Although Si is a nonessential nutrient element, its beneficial role in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively reduce disease severity in many plant pathosystems. The key mechanisms of Si-mediated increased plant disease resistance involve improving mechanical properties of cell walls, activating multiple signaling pathways leading to the expression of defense responsive genes and producing antimicrobial compounds. This article highlights the importance and applicability of Si fertilizers in integrated disease management for crops.
The article analyses selected aspects of the technology and logistics used to modernise a coal-fired heating plant to switch to woodchips, which is illustrated with a specific investment. The study presents characteristics of the investment’s heat economy before the modernisation, as well as the assumptions and program of the project. Finally, selected effects of the modernisation have been described
Metallothioneins are low-molecular-weight proteins capable of covalently binding heavy metal ions due to the presence of many cysteine residues in their sequences. We analyzed the predicted amino acid sequences of 19 metallothionein (7 from Arabidopsis thaliana and 12 from Oryza sativa) and their promoter sequences in silico in order to determine the potential regulatory cis-elements present in the promoters of metallothionein genes, from which it is possible to determine the putative functions of these genes. The PlantCARE and PLACE databases provided information about the putative regulatory elements in the metallothionein promoters. Metal response element sequences were found in the promoters of eleven O. sativa and two Arabidopsis metallothionein genes. Copper response elements were identified in both model plants, usually in many copies, particularly in O. sativa. Both the high cysteine content and the presence of metal response motifs in the promoters support the suggestion that metallothioneins play a key role in metal detoxification. The most common putative element in the analyzed promoters was CIRCADIAN, which was present in five A. thaliana and eight O. sativa sequences. The methyl jasmonate response sequence, root-specific expression element and drought response element were found only in O. sativa metallothioneins. Light and low temperature response elements, biotic and abiotic stress elements, an abscisic acid-responsive element and an ethylene-responsive element occur in selected metallothionein promoters of both species. A few promoters have putative organ- and cell-specific regulatory elements. The presence of many different motifs in the promoters of the Arabidopsis and O. sativa genes implies that metallothioneins are general stress response proteins with many important functions in plants, including regulation of their normal development and adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
The primary objective of the present study was to determine the seasonal dynamics of ciliates in activated sludge. Studies were carried out in order to verify the hypothesis that fertility of a habitat may significantly influence the seasonal dynamics of the abundance of ciliates, as well as the number and intensity of correlations between physic-chemical parameters and ciliates. It seems that the values of numbers of ciliates were seasonally changeable. The highest numbers of ciliates were found in spring and summer, however the lowest numbers of ciliate communities were noted in winter. The studies showed that protozoa community is determined by ammonia mainly in summer. In spring and winter additional factors may be important. Probably suspended solid, total organic carbon and concentration of appropriate food (bacteria and flagellates) are the major regulator of abundance of ciliates.
Secure and cost-effective power generation has become very important nowdays. Care must be taken while designing and operating modern steam power plants. There are regulations such as German boiler regulations (Technische Regeln für Dampfkessel 301) or European Standards that guide the user how to operate the steam power plants. However, those regulations are based on the quasi-steady state assumption and one dimensional temperature distribution in the entire element. This simplifications may not guarantee that the heating and cooling operations are conducted in the most efficient way. Thus, it was important to find an improved method that can allow to establish optimum parameters for heating and cooling operations. The optimum parameters should guarantee that the maximum total stresses in the construction element are in the allowable limits and the entire process is conducted in the shortest time. This paper summarizes mathematical descriptions how to optimize shut down process of power block devices. The optimization formulation is based on the assumption that the maximum total stresses in the whole construction element should be kept within allowable limits during cooling operation. Additionally, the operation should be processed in the shortest time possible.
Bollworms comprise the most harmful and economically relevant species of lepidopteran. Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (D.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is native to America and affects many crops. Tobacco is an industrial crop in which methods of pest control rely mainly on the application of insecticides. To develop new eco-friendly strategies against insect pests it is very important to overcome the side effects of insecticides. The utilization of fungal entomopathogens as endophytes is a new perspective that may accomplish good results. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of endophytic Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. to affect H. gelotopoeon life parameters and feeding behavior on tobacco plants. Beauveria bassiana LPSC 1215 as an endophyte did not reduce the amount of vegetal material consumed by H. gelotopoeon larvae but affected the life cycle period of the plague, particularly the larval and adult stages. Also, egg fertility was affected since adults laid eggs that were not able to hatch. The results of this investigation provide new information on endophytic entomopathogen potential to be incorporated in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs.
High-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are considered as suitable components of future large-scale clean and efficient power generation systems. However, at its current stage of development some technical barriers exists which limit SOFC’s potential for rapid large-scale deployment. The present article aims at providing solutions to key technical barriers in SOFC technology. The focus is on the solutions addressing thermal resistance, fuel reforming, energy conversion efficiency, materials, design, and fuel utilisation issues.
The paper presents a literature review on the topic of vapour power plants working according to the two-phase thermodynamic cycle with supercritical parameters. The main attention was focused on a review of articles and papers on the vapour power plants working using organic circulation fluids powered with low- and medium-temperature heat sources. Power plants with water-steam cycle supplied with a high-temperature sources have also been shown, however, it has been done mainly to show fundamental differences in the efficiency of the power plant and applications of organic and water-steam cycles. Based on a review of available literature references a comparative analysis of the parameters generated by power plants was conducted, depending on the working fluid used, the type and parameters of the heat source, with particular attention to the needs of power plant internal load.
The paper presents a thermodynamic optimization of supercritical coal fired power plant. The aim of the study was to optimize part of the thermal cycle consisted of high-pressure turbine and two chosen highpressure feed water heaters. Calculations were carried out using IPSEpro software combined with MATLAB, where thermal efficiency and gross power generation efficiency were chosen as objective functions. It was shown that the optimization with newly developed framework is sufficiently precise and its main advantage is the reduction of computation time on comparison to the classical method. The calculations have shown the tendency of the increase in efficiency, with the rise of a number of function variables.
This article describes the validation of a supercritical steam cycle. The cycle model was created with the commercial program GateCycle and validated using in-house code of the Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery. The Institute's in-house code has been used extensively for industrial power plants calculations with good results. In the first step of the validation process, assumptions were made about the live steam temperature and pressure, net power, characteristic quantities for high- and low-pressure regenerative heat exchangers and pressure losses in heat exchangers. These assumptions were then used to develop a steam cycle model in Gate-Cycle and a model based on the code developed in-house at the Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery. Properties, such as thermodynamic parameters at characteristic points of the steam cycle, net power values and efficiencies, heat provided to the steam cycle and heat taken from the steam cycle, were compared. The last step of the analysis was calculation of relative errors of compared values. The method used for relative error calculations is presented in the paper. The assigned relative errors are very slight, generally not exceeding 0.1%. Based on our analysis, it can be concluded that using the GateCycle software for calculations of supercritical power plants is possible.
FA discharged from the wastewater treatment plant were extracted from purifi ed effl uents for the quantitative and qualitative analysis. The treated sewage from municipal treatment plants was acidifi ed to pH <2 and extracted with ion exchange resins in a laboratory column. After desorption with NH4 OH, the fulvic acids were condensed under vacuum and tested for mass performance, UV-VIS light spectra, IR absorption spectra, elementary composition and other elements. Their structure was analysed and compared to FA present in surface waters and in sewage treated in other sewage treatment plants based on the authors’ own research and the literature data. The concentration of FA in the treated sewage was 5.2 mg/L. There is a high interdependence between the IR spectrum analysis in the visible light and the elementary composition of FA extracted from different environments, confi rming the conclusions pertaining to the structure and properties of the acids being tested. The longer sewage is subjected to a biological treatment process, the greater the degree of aromatic condensation and humus maturity of the FA contained within it. FA contained in the sewage treated in the three biological sewage treatment plants have the ratio A2 /A3 (the ratio of the absorbance of light with the wavelength of 250 and 300 nm) equal to the value 1.7. There is a high interdependence between the IR spectrum analysis in the visible light and the elementary composition of FA extracted from different environments, confi rming the conclusions pertaining to the structure and properties of the acids being tested.
In this work microbiological air pollution at several commune sewage treatment plants (capacity up to 15,000 PE) was investigated. The bioreactors in all plants had a covered construction. The air samples were taken indoors as well as outdoors (both on the windward and leeward side) during different seasons. The samples were collected using the collision method. The presence of indicator organisms in the samples was determined according to the Polish Standards. Identiﬁcation of individual indicators was performed on solid selective-differentiating substrates. To verify the presence of bacteria from Salmonella, Shigella, coliforms and enterococci species, the colonies observed on the MacConkey substrate were then sifted onto SS and Endo substrates. At all facilities (with one exception) the average CFU for the total number of bacteria and fungi did not exceed 1000/m3, which is the limit set by the Polish Standards for a pollution-free atmospheric air. Bacteria and fungi concentrations, observed at windward and leeward sides of all plants, were relatively low (<100 CFU/m3 and <1000 CFU/m3, respectively) and comparable. A sewage collection point had only a slight impact on the bioaerosol emission. The concentration of microorganisms in the immediate vicinity of covered reactors (aeration chambers) was rather low and remained below the limits sets by the Polish Standards at three facilities. The CFU of individual indicators, measured in rooms accessible for the personnel, was comparable to the CFU in technological rooms. However some indicators, e.g. a number of Actinomycetes, were signiﬁcantly higher and reached >100 CFU/m3, which means signiﬁcant air pollution. Similarly, the CFU of hemolytic bacteria had nonzero values. The only place where higher concentrations of bioaerosol were found was the centrifuge room, where digested sludge was dewatered. The number of fungi stayed below the limits there, but the amount of heterotrophic and hemolytic bacteria exceeded the limits and reached the values of ~10000 CFU/m3 and 800 CFU/m3, respectively; it means that the personnel working in this area is exposed to microbiological agents.
The study was aimed at evaluating microbial contamination on the premises of the sewage treatment plant by determining the concentrations of selected groups of airborne microorganisms. Another objective was to determine the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated strains of staphylococci. The research was conducted in a seasonal cycle, by the impaction method using Merck MAS-100 air sampler. Samples were collected at six sites, each representing a different stage of sewage treatment. The susceptibility of isolated staphylococci was assessed with the disc-diffusion method, following the recommendations of the EUCAST. The results indicate that the microbial population in the air of the investigated area was dominated by mold fungi, whose highest average concentration was recorded at site IV located near the final clarifier (7672 CFU•m-3). Heterotrophic bacteria and mannitol-positive staphylococci were the most numerous at locations where sewage undergoes primary treatment. In each subseuqent stage the number of microorganisms emitted into the air from the sewage was lower. Antibiograms show that more than 50% of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited resistance to penicillin and 20% to rifampicin. In addition, 90% of the analyzed strains were sensitive to other antibiotics. The fungal community included the following genera: Cladosporium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, and Acremonium.The highest air contamination with all studied groups of microorganisms was recorded at the locations where mechanical sewage treatment was performed. During the subsequent stages lower numbers of heterotrophic bacteria were emitted into the air. The air in the investigated sewage treatment plant did not contain multidrug-resistant staphylococci.
This study investigates cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the plant leaves of juglans regia (walnut) and cydonia oblanga (quince) trees related to traffic emissions on the highway roadside. The plant leaf samples were collected from 20 sites on the D-100 Highway roadside and washed with deionized water before analyzed. Determination of Cd was carried out using an inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometer after microwave digestion of the samples. Cd concentration on the plant leaves was found to be between 0.04–0.11 mg/kg. In order to determine the traffic-based emissions, vehicles were counted and an emission inventory was prepared. 0.18 tons of Cd was found to be delivered into the atmosphere every day. Cd accumulation depends on traffic density because there were no residential area and industrial plants. The distribution of Cd accumulation caused by traffic emissions was mapped by using a geographic information system (GIS). The maps showed that the Cd accumulation was high in the areas near the highway and then gradually decreased by moving away from the highway.
Several species of Solanum produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. In the present study, the inhibitory activity of Solanum chrysotrichum, S. erianthum, S. torvum and S. rostratum against phytopathogenic Curvularia lunata was determined. Methanol extracts from roots, stems, leaves and fruits were evaluated by the method of mycelial inhibition on agar and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on a liquid medium. To increase the antimicrobial activity, the combined activity of the most active extracts for each phytopathogen was also determined (a combination of intra and interspecies extracts). The results showed that 12 of the 16 methanolic extracts of Solanum species had antifungal effects against C. lunata. The extracts of S. rostratum and S. erianthum developed the highest activity (~80% inhibition and 28.4 MIC μg . ml–1), even, equal to or greater than, the reference fungicide. The mixture of the active extracts of S. chrysotrichum and S. torvum increased their activity. Various extracts affected the macro and microscopic morphology and most of them reduced the number of conidia of the fungus. This resulted in the capacity to control the vegetative growth and reproduction of C. lunata, the causal fungus of corn leaf spot disease.
Annual and interannual phenomena and canopy behavior of prickly comfrey (Symphytum asperum Lep.) were studied in a 10-year experiment with 25 measurement sessions during the growing season. The results confirm the importance of long-term experiments in studying plant phenomena, biometrics and behavior. Prickly comfrey produced a green canopy each year and growth started very early in spring. Maximum plant height was less than 160 cm. Annual phenomena (growth initiation, seedling phase, flower phase, seed phase, senescent phase), interannual phenomena (initiation and youth, reproduction, new generation formation, plant death) and two population cycles (colonization and expansion) were measured. The duration of annual development up to canopy death can be expressed as x+2x+3x+2x, where x is initial growth. The genetic structure and activity of prickly comfrey promotes generative development of the species. Its age can be measured over a single and several vegetation generations. The ability to change the angle of vertical stem growth after 9 weeks can be considered a functional behavior of prickly comfrey and part of its life strategy. The differences between the organs in the upper and lower parts are very considerable and should be taken into account in morphological descriptions of this species. The upper and lower stems and leaves showed differential growth. Both stem and leaves were densely setose. Old leaves were 3.8 times longer, 4 times broader and 2.4 times thicker than young leaves. Hairs were on average 3 times longer on old than on young leaves. Flowers had contact with pollinators making relatively long visits to them.
Aphids are one of the most important economic pests and vectors of viral diseases in crops. Brevicoryne brassicae L., one of the most serious aphid pests in Brassicaceae, if not controlled, often reaches very high densities. The present study compared the systemic effects of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous Melia azedarach L., Peganum harmala L., Calendula officinalis L. and Otostegia persica Boissier extracts with two systemic pesticides, acetamiprid and pirimicarb (at the maximum label-recommended rate). Population growth percentages of B. brassicae through leaf spraying under greenhouse conditions were assessed. The chemicals were sprayed on one of the leaves in greenhouse condition. The results indicated that all the plant extracts have systemic effects at different levels. Among different extracts, O. persica ethanolic extract, P. harmala methanolic extract and M. azedarach aqueous extract resulted in a reduction of the B. brassicae population.
Proposed is the analysis of steam condensation in the presence of inert gases in a power plant condenser. The presence of inert, noncondensable gases in a condenser is highly undesirable due to its negative effect on the efficiency of the entire cycle. In general, thermodynamics has not provided an explicit criterion for assessing the irreversible heat transfer process. The method presented here enables to evaluate precisely processes occurring in power plant condensers. This real process is of particular interest as it involves a number of thermal layers through which heat transfer is observed. The analysis was performed using a simple, known in the literature and well verified Berman’s model of steam condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases. Adapted to the geometry of the condenser, the model enables, for instance, to recognise places where non-condensable gases are concentrated. By describing with sufficient precision thermodynamic processes taking place in the vicinity of the heat transfer area segment, it is possible to determine the distributions of thermodynamic parameters on the boundaries between successive layers. The obtained results allow for the recognition of processes which contribute in varying degrees to irreversible energy degradation during steam condensation in various parts of the examined device.
This paper shall present and explain the key aspects related to the issue of combined heat and power generation (CHP – Combined Heat and Power or Cogeneration). The cooperation with the water treatment plant launched allowed a closer look at the described technology as well as allowed the analyses and survey. The survey on the efficacy of the selected components of the cogeneration system was based on two cogeneration units fuelled with biogas produced in the sewage fermentation.
We test the application of dendrochronological methods for dating and assessing the environmental impacts of tsunamis in polar regions, using an example of the 21 November 2000 landslide−generated tsunami in Vaigat Strait (Sullorsuaq Strait), West Greenland. The studied tsunami inundated a c . 130 m−wide coastal plain with seawater, caused erosion of beaches and top soil and covered the area with an up to 35 cm−thick layer of tsunami deposits composed of sand and gravel. Samples of living shrub, Salix glauca (greyleaf willow) were collected in 2012 from tsunami−flooded and non−flooded sites. The tree−ring analyses reveal unambiguously that the tsunami−impacted area was immediately colonized during the following summer by rapidly growing shrubs, whilst one of our control site specimens records evidence for damage that dates to the time of the tsunami. This demonstrates the potential for dendrochronological methods to act as a precise tool for the dating of Arctic paleotsunamis, as well as rapid post−tsunami ecosystem recovery. The reference site shrubs were likely damaged by solifluction in the autumn 2000 AD that was triggered by high seasonal rainfall, which was itself a probable contributory factor to the tsunami−generating landslide.
Diurnal measurements of photosynthetic pr ocesses, effective quantum yield of photosystem II ( F PSII ), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) were done in three domi− nant species of Arctic tundra ( Silene acaulis , Dryas octopetala , Salix polaris ) in Petunia− bukta, Spitsbergen. Daily courses of net photosynthesis (P N ) were calculated from chloro− phyll fluorescence data and daily photosynthesi s evaluated. The short−term field measure− ments were carried out in summer 2009, and 2010. Fluorometric parameters ( F PSII and ETR) were measured each 5 minutes as well as microc limate characteristics of the site for 10 (2009) and 8 days (2010), respectively. In all species photosynthetic ETR was well related to incident photosynthetically active radiation a nd leaf temperature. In general, D. octopetala exhibited slightly lower ETR than the other two speci es. Estimated maximu m photosynthetic rate (P Nmax ) reached 17.6, 21.4, and 22.9 μmol CO 2 m −2 s −1 for S. polaris , S. acaulis ,and D. octopetala , respectively. Daily photosynthesis reach ed comparable values in all species, D. otopetala , however, exhibited slightly lower values than the other two species both for overcast and fully sunny days (3.9 and 13.4 mmol CO 2 m −2 d −1 , respectively). The range of daily photosynthesis for S. polaris and S. acaulis studied, reached the ranges of 4.6–6.9 and 14.6–15.2 mmol CO 2 m −2 d −1 for overcast and fully sunny day, respectively.