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Number of results: 9
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Abstract

Although the phenomenon of otoacoustic emission has been known for nearly 30 years, it has not been fully explained yet. One kind of otoacoustic emission is distortion product of the otoacoustic emission (DPOAE). New aspects of this phenomenon are constantly discovered and attempts are made to interpret correctly the obtained results. This paper discusses a new method of measuring DPOAE signals based on double phase-sensitive detection, which makes possible a real-time measurement of the DPOAE signal amplitude and phase. The method was applied for measurements of DPOAE signals in guinea pigs. Sample records are presented and the obtained results are discussed.
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Abstract

This study analysed the influence of montelukast (MON; 10-8 - 10-4 M), a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) antagonist, on the contractility of the porcine uterine smooth muscle in the luteal phase of the oesterous cycle (n=8) and in early pregnancy (n=8). Stimulation of uterine strips in the luteal phase with MON has been shown to significantly reduce the amplitude of con- tractions, but not to affect the tension or frequency of contractions. A statistically significant tension increase and decrease in the frequency and amplitude of contractions was observed in pigs in early pregnancy. This suggests that MON has a different effect on the parameters under study in cyclic and pregnant pigs.
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Abstract

The present study was undertaken to highlight the influence of simvastatin administration on hepatocyte morphology, proliferation, and apoptosis. The study included 48 gilts aged 3 months (weighing ca. 30 kg) divided into groups I (control; n=24) and II, receiving 40 mg/animal simvas- tatin orally (simavastatin; n=24) for 29 days. The animals were euthanized on days subsequent to the experiment. The livers were sampled, fixed, and processed routinely for histopathology, histochemistry, and immunohistochemistry (for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, Bcl-2, and caspase-3). Apoptosis was visualized by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL). Simvastatin administration caused acute hepatocyte swelling, glycogen de- pletion, hyperaemia, multifocal hepatocyte proliferation with occasional pseudoacinar formation, connective tissue hyperplasia, eosinophil infiltration, and interface hepatitis. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, mean diameter of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions, and Bcl-2 immunoexpression were lower compared to control, and mean caspase-3 immunoexpression was higher in group II compared to control. On day 25 and 29 single hepatocytes in the simvasta- tin-treated group were TUNEL-positive. Simvastatin caused morphological alteration which became more intense over time. The results from the present study suggest that simvastatin treat- ment may cause glycogen, lipid metabolism and cell membrane permeability distortion, fibrosis, interface hepatitis, reduction in hepatocyte proliferation and transcriptional activity, and enhanced vulnerability to apoptosis. Summing up the results, it can be concluded that simvastatin caused liver damage with similar morphological changes seen in autoimmune-like liver injury, which may indicate that simvastatin may induce autoimmune-like drug induced liver injury.
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Abstract

Tight junction proteins are important for the maintenance and repair of the intestinal mucosal barrier. The present study investigated relationships among tight junction protein gene expres- sion, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection, and intestinal mucosal morphology in piglets. We compared the expression of six tight junction proteins (ZO-1, ZO-2, Occludin, Claudin-1, Claudin-4, and Claudin-5) between seven-day-old piglets infected with PEDV and normal piglets, as well as in PEDV-infected porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IPEC-J2). We also evaluated differences in mucosal morphology between PEDV-infected and normal piglets. The expression of six tight junction protein genes was lower in PEDV-infected piglets than in the normal animals. The expression of ZO-1, ZO-2, Occludin, and Claudin-4 in the intestine tissue was significantly lower (p<0.05) in PEDV-infected than in normal piglets. The expression of Claudin-5 in the jejunum was significantly lower in PEDV-infected piglets than in the normal animals (p<0.01). The expression of Claudin-1 and Claudin-5 genes in the ileum was signifi- cantly higher in PEDV-infected piglets than in normal piglets (p<0.01). Morphologically, the intestinal mucosa in PEDV-infected piglets exhibited clear pathological changes, including breakage and shedding of intestinal villi. In PEDV-infected IPEC-J2 cells, the mRNA expression of the six tight junction proteins showed a downward trend; in particular, the expression of the Occludin and Claudin-4 genes was significantly lower (p<0.01). These data suggest that the expression of these six tight junction proteins, especially Occludin and Claudin-4, plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier and resistance to PEDV infection in piglets.
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Abstract

Combined retrograde tracing and double-labelling immunofluorescence were used to investi- gate the distribution and chemical coding of neurons in aorticoerenal (ARG) and testicular (TG) ganglia supplying the urinary bladder apex (UBA) in the juvenile male pig (n=4, 12 kg. body weight). Retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB) was injected into the wall of the bladder apex under pentobarbital anesthesia. After three weeks all the pigs were deeply anesthetized and transcardially perfused with 4% buffered paraformaldehyde. TG and ARG were collected and processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence. The presence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), somatostatin (SOM), galanin (GAL), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) were inves- tigated. The cryostat sections were examined with a Zeiss LSM 710 confocal microscope equipped with adequate filter blocks. The TG and ARG were found to contain many FB-positive neurons projecting to the UBA (UBA-PN). The UBA-PN were distributed in both TG and ARG. The majority were found in the left ganglia, mostly in TG. Immunohistochemistry disclosed that the vast majority of UBA-PN were noradrenergic (TH- and/or DBH-positive). Many noradrenergic neurons also contained immunoreactivity to NPY, SOM or GAL. Most of the UBA-PN were supplied with varicose VAChT-, or NOS- IR (immunoreactive) nerve fibres. This study has revealed a relatively large population of differently coded ARG and TG neu- rons projecting to the porcine urinary bladder. As judged from their neurochemical organization these nerve cells constitute an important element of the complex neuro-endocrine system involved in the regulation of the porcine urogenital organ function.
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Abstract

Animals as a source of organs and tissues for xenotransplantation could become a backup solution for the growing shortage of human donors. The presence of human xenoreactive anti- bodies directed against Galα1,3Gal antigens on the cell surface of a pig donor triggers the activa- tion of the complement leading to a hyperacute reaction. The development of genetic engineer- ing techniques has enabled the modification of genomes by knocking in and/or knocking out genes. In this paper, we report the generation of modified pigs with ZFN mediated disruption of the GGTA1 gene encoding the enzyme responsible for synthesis of Galα1,3Gal antigens. ZFN plasmids designed to target the exon 9 region of the pig GGTA1 gene encoding the catalytic domain were injected into the pronuclei of fertilized egg cells. Among 107 piglets of the F0 gene- ration analyzed, one female with 9-nt deletion in exon 9 of the GGTA1 gene was found. 13 of 33 piglets of the F1 generation represented the +/- GGTA1 genotype and 2 of 13 F2 piglets repre- sented the -/- GGTA1 genotype. No changes in the animals’ behavior, phenotype or karyotype were observed. Analysis confirmed heredity of the trait in all animals. A complex functional analysis of the modified animals, including flow cytometry, human serum cytotoxicity test and immunohistochemical detection, was performed to estimate the phenotype effect of genetic modification and this indicated an efficient GGTA1 knock-out in modified pigs.
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Abstract

The present study investigated the expression of androgen receptor (AR) in neurons of the anterior pelvic ganglion (APG) and celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG; ganglion not involved in the innervation of reproductive organs) in the male pig with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry. qPCR investigations revealed that the level of AR gene expression in the APG tissue was approximately 2.5 times higher in the adult (180-day-old) than in the juvenile (7-day-old) boars. Furthermore, in both the adult and juvenile animals it was sig- nificantly higher in the APG than in CSMG tissue (42 and 85 times higher, respectively). Immu- nofluorescence results fully confirmed those obtained with qPCR. In the adult boars, nearly all adrenergic (DβH-positive) and the majority of non-adrenergic neurons in APG stained for AR. In the juvenile animals, about half of the adrenergic and non-adrenergic neurons were AR-posi- tive. In both the adult and juvenile animals, only solitary CSMG neurons stained for AR. The present results suggest that in the male pig, pelvic neurons should be considered as an element of highly testosterone-dependent autonomic circuits involved in the regulation of urogenital func- tion, and that their sensitization to androgens is a dynamic process, increasing during the prepu- bertal period.
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