In vibration control with piezoceramics, a high coupling of the piezoelement with the structure is desired. A high coupling improves the damping performance of passive techniques like shunt damping. The coupling can be influenced by a the material properties of the piezoceramics, but also by the placement within the structure and the size of the transducer. Detailed knowlegde about the vibration behavior of the structure is required for this. This paper presents an in-depth analysis of the optimal shape of piezoelectric elements. General results for one-dimensional, but inhomogeneos strain distribution are provided. These results are applied to the case of a longitudinal transducer and a bending bimorph. It is obtained that for maximum coupling, only a certain fracture of the volume should be made of piezoelectric material&
An optimized method of vibration Energy Harvesting is based on a step-down transformer that regulates the power flow from the piezoelectric element to the desired electronic load. Taking into account parameters of the whole system, the “optimal” voltage gain the piezoelectric transformer can be determined where the harvested power is maximized for the actual level of mechanical excitation. Consequently the piezoelectric transformers can be used to boost up the conversion of mechanical strain into electrical power with considerable potential in Energy Harvesting applications. Nowadays however, the most important factor is usage of lead free material for its construction. Additional desired parameters of such ceramics include high value of piezoelectric coefficients, low dielectric losses and reasonable power density. This work for first time proposes a lead free K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN) material implementation for stack type of piezoelectric transformer that is designed for load efficiency optimization of vibration energy harvester.
In this work the design aspects of a piezoelectric-based resonance ceramic pressure sensor made using low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology and designed for high-temperature applications is presented. The basic pressure-sensor structure consists of a circular, edge-clamped, deformable diaphragm that is bonded to a ring, which is part of the rigid ceramic structure. The resonance pressure sensor has an additional element – a piezoelectric actuator – for stimulating oscillation of the diaphragm in the resonance-frequency mode. The natural resonance frequency is dependent on the diaphragm construction (i.e., its materials and geometry) and on the actuator. This resonance frequency then changes due to the static deflection of the diaphragm caused by the applied pressure. The frequency shift is used as the output signal of the piezoelectric resonance pressure sensor and makes it possible to measure the static pressure. The characteristics of the pressure sensor also depend on the temperature, i.e., the temperature affects both the ceramic structure (its material and geometry) and the properties of the actuator. This work is focused on the ceramic structure, while the actuator will be investigated later.
Beams with rectangular cross-section, with large length-to-width ratio, can be excited to torsional vibrations. If the piezoelectric elements are mounted to the beam in pairs at the same cross-section with two separated elements positioned on the same side of the beam, and the voltages applied to them are in the opposite phase, they produce twisting moments which can be applied to reduce the torsional vibrations. Results of FEM simulations are presented and analysed in the paper. All analyses are performed for a steel free-clamped beam. The piezoelectric elements made of PZT material are mounted in pairs on one side of the beam. The analyses are done for separated natural modes.
Effectiveness of operation of a weapon stabilization system is largely dependent on the choice of a sensor, i.e. an accelerometer. The paper identifies and examines fundamental errors of piezoelectric accelerometers and offers measures for their reduction. Errors of a weapon stabilizer piezoelectric sensor have been calculated. The instrumental measurement error does not exceed 0.1 × 10−5 m/s2. The errors caused by the method of attachment to the base, different noise sources and zero point drift can be mitigated by the design features of piezoelectric sensors used in weapon stabilizers.
The paper presents application of a modified, symmetrical Bouc-Wen model to simulate the mechanical behaviour of high-frequency piezoelectric actuators (PAs). In order to identify parameters of the model, a two-step algorithm was developed. In its first stage, the mechanical parameters were identified by taking into account their bilinear variability and using a square input voltage waveform. In the second step, the hysteresis parameters were determined based on a periodic excitation. Additionally, in order to reduce the influence of measurement errors in determination of selected derivatives the continuum wavelet transform (CWT) and translation-rotation transformation (TRT) methods were applied. The results proved that the modified symmetrical Bouc-Wen model is able to describe the mechanical behaviour of PAs across a wide frequency range.
The present work focuses on a first study for a piezoelectric harvesting system, finalized to the obtaining of electrical energy from the kinetic energy of rainy precipitation, a renewable energy source not really considered until now. The system, after the realization, can be collocated on the roof of an house, configuring a “Piezo Roof Harvesting System”. After presenting a state of art of the harvesting systems from environmental energy, linked to vibrations, using piezoelectric structures, and of piezoelectric harvesting systems functioning with rain, the authors propose an analysis of the fundamental features of rainy precipitations for the definition of the harvesting system. Then, four key patterns for the realization of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system are discussed and analysed, arriving to the choice of a cantilever beam scheme, in which the piezoelectric material works in 31 mode. An electro-mechanical model for the simulation of performance of the unit for the energetic conversion, composed of three blocks, is proposed. The model is used for a simulation campaign to perform the final choice of the more suitable piezoelectric unit, available on the market, which will be adopted for the realization of the “Piezo Roof Harvesting System”.
The paper provides analysis of the influence of temperature on the error of weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems utilizing piezoelectric polymer load sensors. Results of tests of these sensors in a climatic chamber, as well as results of long-term tests at the WIM site, are presented. Different methods for correction of the influence of changes in temperature were assessed for their effectiveness and compared.
In this work, an approach to the design of broadband thickness-mode piezoelectric transducer is pre- sented. In this approach, simulation of discrete time model of the impulse response of matched and backed piezoelectric transducer is used to design high sensitivity, broad bandwidth, and short-duration impulse response transducers. The effect of matching the performance of transmitting and receiving air backed PZT-5A transducer working into water load is studied. The optimum acoustical characteristics of the quarter wavelength matching layers are determined by a compromise between sensitivity and pulse duration. The thickness of bonding layers is smaller than that of the quarter wavelength matching layers so that they do not change the resonance peak significantly. Our calculations show that the −3 dB air backed transducer bandwidth can be improved considerably by using quarter wavelength matching layers. The computer model developed in this work to predict the behavior of multilayer structures driven by a transient waveform agrees well with measured results. Furthermore, the advantage of this this model over other approaches is that the time signal for optimum set of matching layers can be predicted rapidly
Wireless body area network (WBAN) has evolved from Wireless personal area network (WPAN), a prominent area of research with vast applications in last decade. In WBAN, various wirelessly interconnected body node (BN) are implanted in or around the human body. Also due to advancement in technology a miniature low power device/BN is developed. The main challenge in WBAN body node is to maintain finite size of battery as well as to increase its capacity. Hence this issue can be resolved by using energy harvesting. Generally researchers have used piezoelectric, electromagnetic or solar harvester only. But, in this research energy harvesting using the hybrid optimization of Piezoelectric and Peltier sensors by controlling on-off timing of body nodes is introduced. A hybrid optimized algorithm is developed using MATLAB 2015b platform and extensive simulation is performed considering four different human gestures (relaxing, walking, running and fast running) which in turn improves overall Quality of Service (QoS) including average (packet loss, end to end delay, throughput) and overall detection efficiency.
Successful implementation of an active vibration control system is strictly correlated to the exact knowledge of the dynamic behavior of the system, of the excitation level and spectra and of the sensor and actuator’s specification. Only the correct management of these aspects may guarantee the correct choice of the control strategy and the relative performance. Within this paper, some preliminary activities aimed at the creation of a structurally simple, cheap and easily replaceable active control systems for metal panels are discussed. The final future aim is to control and to reduce noise, produced by vibrations of metal panels of the body of a car. The paper is focused on two points. The first one is the realization of an electronic circuit for Synchronized Shunted Switch Architecture (SSSA) with the right dimensioning of the components to control the proposed test article, represented by a rectangular aluminum plate. The second one is a preliminary experimental study on the test article, in controlled laboratory conditions, to compare performances of two possible control approach: SSSA and a feed-forward control approach. This comparison would contribute to the future choice of the most suitable control architecture for the specific attenuation of structure-born noise related to an automotive floor structure under deterministic (engine and road-tyre interaction) and stochastic (road-tyre interaction and aerodynamic) forcing actions.
The paper presents the results of an analysis of gaseous sensors based on a surface acoustic wave (SAW) by means of the equivalent model theory. The applied theory analyzes the response of the SAW sensor in the steady state affected by carbon monoxide (CO) in air. A thin layer of WO3 has been used as a sensor layer. The acoustical replacing impedance of the sensor layer was used, which takes into account the profile of the concentration of gas molecules in the layer. Thanks to implementing the Ingebrigtsen equation, the authors determined analytical expressions for the relative changes of the velocity of the surface acoustic wave in the steady state. The results of the analysis have shown that there is an optimum thickness of the layer of CO sensor at which the acoustoelectric effect (manifested here as a change in the acoustic wave velocity) is at its highest. The theoretical results were verified and confirmed experimentally
Lead-free ceramics of Na0.5K0.5Nb1-xSbxO3 (NKNS) and Na0.5K0.5Nb1-xSbxO3 + 0.5 mol%MnO2 (NKNS + 0.5 mol%MnO2) (0 < x < 0.06) ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state hot pressing method. The ceramics possess a single-phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic symmetry. Microstructural examination revealed that Mn doping of NKNS leads to improvement of densification. The cubic-tetragonal and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transitions of NKNS shifted to higher and lower temperature, respectively after introduction of Mn ion. Besides, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were improved. The results were discussed in term of difference in both ionic size and electronegativity of Nb5+ and Sb5+ and improvement of densification after Mn ion doping.