The cometabolic biodegradation of 4-Chlorophenol (4-CP) by the Stenotrophomonas maltophilia KB2 strain in the presence of phenol (P) was studied. In order to determine the kinetics of biodegradation of both substrates, present alone and in cometabolic systems, a series of tests was carried out in a batch reactor changing, in a wide range, the initial concentration of both substrates. The growth of the tested strain on phenol alone was described by Haldane kinetic model (mm = 0:9 1/h, Ksg = 48:97 gg/m3, KIg = 256:12 gg/m3, Yxg = 0:5715). The rate of 4-CP transformation by resting cells of KB2 strain was also described by Haldane equation and the estimated parameters of the model were: kc = 0:229 gc=gxh, Ksc = 0:696 gc=m3, KIc = 43:82 gc=m3. Cometabolic degradation of 4-CP in the presence of phenol was investigated for a wide range of initial 4-CP and phenol concentrations (22–66 gc/m3 and 67–280 gg/m3 respectively). The experimental database was exploited to verify the two kinetic models: CIModel taking only the competitive inhibition into consideration and a more universal CNIModel considering both competitive and non-competitive inhibition. CNIModel approximated experimental data better than CIModel.
In the present study, treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol, resorcinol and catechol was studied in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Parameters such as hydraulic retention time (HRT) and filling time have been optimized to increase the phenol, resorcinol, catechol and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies. More than 99% phenol, 95% resorcinol and 96% catechol and 89% COD removal efficiency was obtained at optimum conditions of HRT = 1.25 d and fill time = 1.5 h. The heating value of the sludge was found to be 12 MJ/kg. The sludge can be combusted to recover its energy value.
Polygonum orientale with beautiful red flowers can be found as one dominant species in the vicinity of most water bodies and wetlands in China. However, its phytoremediation potential has not been sufficiently explored because little is known about its resistance to inorganic or organic pollutants. We investigated P. orientale response to low and moderate levels of phenol stress (≤ 80 mg L-1). Endpoints included phenol tolerance of P. orientale and the removal of the pollutant, antioxidant enzyme activities, damage to the cell membrane, osmotic regulators and photosynthetic pigments. In plant leaves, phenol stress significantly increased the activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), as well as the contents of proline, soluble sugars and carotenoids, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), H2O2 and electrolyte leakage (EL) levels remained unaltered. On the other hand, there were significant decreases of soluble protein and chlorophyll contents. We demonstrated that, in combination with phenol tolerance and its removal, P. orientale has efficient protection mechanisms against phenol-induced oxidative damage (≤ 80 mg L-1). We propose that P. orientale could be used as an alternative and interesting material in the phytoremediation of phenol.
The photocatalytic, sonolytic and sonophotocatalytic degradation of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) using heterogeneous (TiO2) was investigated in this study. Experiments were performed in slurry mode with artificial UV 125 watt medium pressure mercury lamp coupled with ultrasound (100 W, 33+3 KHz) for sonication of the slurry. The degradation of compound was studied in terms of first order kinetics. The catalyst concentration was optimized at 1.5 gL-1, pH at 7 and oxidant concentration at 1.5 gL-1. The results obtained were quite appreciable as 80% degradation was obtained for photocatalytic treatment in 120 minutes whereas, ultrasound imparting synergistic effect as degradation achieved 96% increase in 90 minutes during sonophotocatalysis. The degradation follows the trend sonophotocatalysis > photocatalysis > sonocatalytic > sonolysis. The results of sonophotocatalytic degradation of pharmaceutical compound showed that it could be used as efficient and environmentally friendly technique for the complete degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants which will increase the chances for the reuse of wastewater.
Chemical bonded resin sand mould system has high dimensional accuracy, surface finish and sand mould properties compared to green sand mould system. The mould cavity prepared under chemical bonded sand mould system must produce sufficient permeability and hardness to withstand sand drop while pouring molten metal through ladle. The demand for improved values of permeability and mould hardness depends on systematic study and analysis of influencing variables namely grain fineness number, setting time, percent of resin and hardener. Try-error experiment methods and analysis were considered impractical in actual foundry practice due to the associated cost. Experimental matrices of central composite design allow conducting minimum experiments that provide complete insight of the process. Statistical significance of influencing variables and their interaction were determined to control the process. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was conducted to validate the model statistically. Mathematical equation was derived separately for mould hardness and permeability, which are expressed as a non-linear function of input variables based on the collected experimental input-output data. The developed model prediction accuracy for practical usefulness was tested with 10 random experimental conditions. The decision variables for higher mould hardness and permeability were determined using desirability function approach. The prediction results were found to be consistent with experimental values.
The paper presents the impact of biodegradable material - polycaprolactone (PCL) on selected properties of moulding sands. A self-hardening moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin, which is widely used in foundry practice, and an environmentally friendly self-hardening moulding sand with hydrated sodium silicate where chosen for testing. The purpose of the new additive in the case of synthetic resin moulding sands is to reduce their harmfulness to the environment and to increase their “elasticity” at ambient temperature. In the case of moulding sands with environmentally friendly hydrated sodium silicate binder, the task of the new additive is to increase the elasticity of the tested samples while preserving their ecological character. Studies have shown that the use of 5% PCL in moulding sand increases their flexibility at ambient temperature, both with organic and inorganic binders. The influence of the new additive on the deformation of the moulding sands at elevated temperatures has also been demonstrated.
In the foundry industry, many harmful compounds can be found, which as a result of gradual but long-term exposure to employees bring negative results. One of such compounds is phenol (aromatic organic compound), which its vapours are corrosive to the eyes, the skin, and the respiratory tract. Exposition to this compound also may cause harmful effects on the central nervous system and heart, resulting in dysrhythmia, seizures, and coma. Phenol is a component of many foundry resins, especially used in shell moulds in the form of resincoated sands. In order to identify it, the pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method (Py-GC/MS) was used. The tests were carried out in conditions close to real (shell mould process – temperature 300°C). During the measurement, attention was focused on the appropriate selection of chromatographic analysis conditions in order to best separate the compounds, as it is difficult to separate the phenol and its derivatives. The identification of compounds was based on own standards.