The paper presents the analysis of results of the investigations concerning a vertical pipe submersion coefficient h/L with an air-water mixer of the described type. The investigations were performed on an air lift pump testing stand, constructed in a laboratory on a scale of 1:1. At first, the paper presents the possibilities of application of air lift pumps. The investigations to date have been briefly characterized and a research problem formulated. Then the paper describes the construction and working principle of the air lift pump testing stand, constructed in a laboratory. It presents the methodology of derivation of empirical formulas for calculation of vertical pipe submersion coefficients h/L. The comparative analysis of the values of h/L determined in the measurements with the values of h/L calculated using the derived empirical formulas was carried out. The research scope encompassed the derivation of the aforementioned empirical formulas for five fixed values of air lift pump delivery head H, comparison of the obtained values h/L determined in the measurements with the values of h/L calculated using the derived empirical formulas and the improved analytical Stenning-Martin model. To derive the empirical formulas for calculation of the vertical pipe submersion coefficient h/L, the dimensional analysis and multiple regression was applied. The investigations of the vertical pipe submersion coefficient h/L were carried out for the vertical pipe internal diameter d = 0.04 m and for the fixed delivery heads H: 0.45, 0.90, 1.35, 1.80, 2.25 m. The values calculated using the derived empirical formulas (23), (24), (25), (26), (27) coincide with the values of h/L determined in the measurements for the whole range of the investigated delivery heads H. On the other hand, the values of h/L calculated using the improved analytical Stenning-Martin model do not coincide with the values of h/L determined in the measurements for the delivery heads H equal 0.45 and 0.90 m, whereas they are comparable for H equal 1.35, 1.80, 2.25 m. For the tested air lift pump with the air-water mixer of the described type (Fig. 2), the maximum air pressure should not exceed pp = 145 kPa, because for higher pressures the water flow rate diminishes. In the air lift pump being tested, the water flow rate Qw grows along with the rise in the air flow rate and in the vertical pipe submersion coefficient h/L whereas falls along with the rise in the delivery head H.
The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3- 3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear.The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. The paper presents the results of examination of the kinetics of σ phase precipitation at a temperature of 800°C and at times ranging from 30 to 180 minutes. Changes in the morphology of precipitates of the σ phase were determined using the value of shape factor R. Resistance to erosion-corrosion wear of duplex cast steel was correlated with the kinetics of sigma phase precipitating.
A mathematical model of austenite - bainite transformation in austempered ductile cast iron has been presented. The model is based on a model developed by Bhadeshia [1, 2] for modelling the bainitic transformation in high-silicon steels with inhibited carbide precipitation. A computer program has been developed that calculates the incubation time, the transformation time at a preset temperature, the TTT diagram and carbon content in unreacted austenite as a function of temperature. Additionally, the program has been provided with a module calculating the free energy of austenite and ferrite as well as the maximum driving force of transformation. Model validation was based on the experimental research and literature data. Experimental studies included the determination of austenite grain size, plotting the TTT diagram and analysis of the effect of heat treatment parameters on the microstructure of ductile iron. The obtained results show a relatively good compatibility between the theoretical calculations and experimental studies. Using the developed program it was possible to examine the effect of austenite grain size on the rate of transformation.
Presence of iron in Al-Si cast alloys is common problem mainly in secondary (recycled) aluminium alloys. Better understanding of iron influence in this kind of alloys can lead to reduction of final castings cost. Presented article deals with examination of detrimental iron effect in AlSi10MgMn cast alloy. Microstructural analysis and ultimate tensile strength testing were used to consider influence of iron to microstructure and mechanical properties of selected alloy
Iron is presented as an impurity in Al-Si alloys and occurs in the form of the β-Al5FeSi phase formations. The presence of iron and other elements in the alloy causes the formation of large intermetallic phases. Due to the high brittleness of this phase, it reduces the mechanical properties and increases the porosity. Manganese is used to inhibit the formation of this detrimental phase. It changes the morphology of the phase to polyhedral crystals, skeletal formations, or Chinese script. The present article deals with the influence of various amounts of manganese (0.1; 0.2; 0.4; 0.6 wt. %) on the formation of iron-based intermetallic phases in the AlSi7Mg0.3 alloy with different levels of iron content (0.4; 0.8, 1.2 wt. %). The increase of iron content in each alloy caused the creation of more intermetallic compounds and this effect has been more significant with higher concentrations of manganese. In alloys where the amount of 1.2 wt. % iron is present, the shape of eutectic silicon grain changes from angular to short needle type.
An integrated Z-source inverter for the single-phase single-stage grid-connected photovoltaic system is proposed in this paper. The inverter integrates three functional blocks including maximum-power-point-tracking, step-up/down DC-side voltage and output grid-connected current. According to the non-minimum-phase characteristic presented in DC-side and the functional demands of the system, two constant-frequency sliding-mode controllers with integral compensation are proposed to guarantee the system robustness. By using two controllers, the effects caused by the non-minimum-phase characteristic are mitigated. Under the circumstance of that the input voltage or the grid-connected current changes suddenly, the notches/protrusions following the over-shoot/ under-shoot of the DC-bus voltage are eliminated. The quality of grid-connected current is ensured. Also, a small-signal modelling method is employed to analyze the close-loop system. A 300W prototype is built in the laboratory. A solar-array simulator (SAS) is used to verify the systematic responses in the experiment. The correctness and validity of the inverter and proposed control algorithm are proved by simulation and experimental results.
With the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the characteristic temperatures and enthalpy of phase transformations were defined for commercial AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy (EN AC-46000) that is being used for example for pressurized castings for automotive industry. During the heating with the speed of 10oCmin-1 two endothermic effects has been observed. The first appears at the temperature between 495 oC and 534 oC, and the other between 555 oC and 631 oC. With these reactions the phase transformation enthalpy comes up as +6 J g-1 and +327 J g-1 . During the cooling with the same speed, three endothermic reactions were observed at the temperatures between 584 oC and 471 oC. The total enthalpy of the transitions is – 348 J g-1 . Complimentary to the calorimetric research, the structural tests (SEM and EDX) were conducted on light microscope Reichert and on scanning microscope Hitachi S-4200. As it comes out of that, there are dendrites in the structure of α(Al) solution, as well as the eutectic (β) silicon crystals, and two types of eutectic mixture: double eutectic α(Al)+β(Si) and compound eutectic α+Al2Cu+β.
Tests concerning EN AC 48000 (AlSi12CuNiMg) alloy phase transition covered (ATD) thermal analysis and (DSC) differential scanning calorimetry specifying characteristic temperatures and enthalpy of transformations. ATD thermal analysis shows that during cooling there exist: pre-eutectic crystallization effect of Al9Fe2Si phase, double eutectic and crystallization α(Al)+β(Si) and multi-component eutectic crystallization. During heating, DSC curve showed endothermic effect connected with melting of the eutectic α(Al)+β(Si) and phases: Al2Cu, Al3Ni, Mg2Si and Al9Fe2Si being its components. The enthalpy of this transformation constitutes approx. +392 J g-1 . During freezing of the alloy, DSC curve showed two exothermal reactions. One is most likely connected with crystallization of Al9Fe2Si phase and the second one comes from freezing of the eutectic α(Al)+β(Si). The enthalpy of this transformation constitutes approx. –340 J g-1 . Calorimetric test was accompanied by structural test (SEM) conducted with the use of optical microscope Reichert and scanning microscope Hitachi S-4200. There occurred solution's dendrites α(Al), eutectic silicon crystal (β) and two types of eutectic solution: double eutectic α(Al)+β(Si) and multi-component eutectic α+AlSiCuNiMg+β.
The main work of this paper focuses on the simulation of binary alloy solidification using the phase field model and adaptive octree grids. Ni-Cu binary alloy is used as an example in this paper to do research on the numerical simulation of isothermal solidification of binary alloy. Firstly, the WBM model, numerical issues and adaptive octree grids have been explained. Secondary, the numerical simulation results of three dimensional morphology of the equiaxed grain and concentration variations are given, taking the efficiency advantage of the adaptive octree grids. The microsegregation of binary alloy has been analysed emphatically. Then, numerical simulation results of the influence of thermo-physical parameters on the growth of the equiaxed grain are also given. At last, a simulation experiment of large scale and long-time has been carried out. It is found that increases of initial temperature and initial concentration will make grain grow along certain directions and adaptive octree grids can effectively be used in simulations of microstructure.
The mathematical model of the five-phase squirrel-cage induction motor and the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter have been presented. The control methods and control systems of the field-oriented control of the five-phase induction motor with an open-end stator winding are described. The structures of the direct fieldoriented control system (DFOC) and the Indirect Field-oriented control system (IFOC) with PI controllers in outer and inner control loops are analyzed. A method of space vector modulation used to control the system of the dual five-phase voltage source inverter has been discussed. The results of simulation studies of the field-oriented control methods are presented. Comparative analysis of the simulation results was carried out.
In this paper the MTPA, MTPF, constant torque and constant flux control trajectories are presented. These trajectories are calculated for a 6-phase asymmetric insettype SMPMSM generator with the assumption of a certain level of 3rd harmonic current injection. This injection technique increases the generator performance due to the cooperation of the fundamental and 3rd harmonic. The presented trajectories are used for fast control of the generator working in the gearless wind turbine system.
An LLCL-filter is becoming more attractive than an LCL-filter as the interface between the grid-tied inverter and the grid due to possibility of reducing the copper and the magnetic materials. The efficiency of the LLCL-filter based single-phase grid-tied inverter also excites interests for many applications. The operation of the switches of the VSI is various with different modulation methods, which lead to different efficiencies for such a single-phase grid-tied inverter system, and therefore important research has been carried out on the effect of the choice of PWM schemes. Then power losses and efficiencies of the LLCL-filter and the LCL-filter based single-phase grid-tied inverters are analyzed and compared under the discontinuous unipolar, the dual-buck and the bipolar modulations. Results show that the efficiency of LLCL-filter based inverter system is higher than the LCL- filter based independent on the modulation method adopted. Experiments on a 2 kW prototype are in good agreement with results of the theoretical analysis.
In order to solve the problem of traditional carrier phase-shift modulation with multiple ratios or PI controllers and cumbersome tuning parameters, this paper uses improved carrier phase-shift modulation. The total turn-on number of sub-modules each bridge arm is determined by comparing the sinusoidal modulated wave with the triangular carrier, and then the control signal is generated according to the capacitance voltage sorting result and the bridge armcurrent polarity. However, this modulation method uses a sorting method that causes the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) have an excessively high switching frequency. Therefore, a sorting trigger condition that can effectively reduce the switching frequency is used. The method determines whether to reorder based on the error between the voltage average and the actual value. For the circulation problem, the double-frequency negative sequence component is extracted by rotating coordinate transformation, and it is suppressed by PI control. A 21-level MMC model was built in MATLAB/simulink to analyze the sub-module capacitor voltage fluctuation, output current, voltage distortion rate and bridge arm circulation. It is verified that the modulation method can combine the sorting algorithm and circulation suppression method at the same time, and has better voltage equalization and circulation suppression effects.
The cooling rate is one of the main tools available to the process engineer by means of which it is possible to influence the crystallisation process. Imposing a desired microstructure on a casting as early as in the casting solidification phase widens significantly the scope of technological options at disposal in the process of aluminium-silicon alloy parts design and application. By changing the cooling rate it is possible to influence the course of the crystallisation process and thus also the material properties of individual microstructure components. In the study reported in this paper it has been found that the increase of cooling rate within the range of solidification temperatures of a complex aluminium-silicon alloy resulted in a decrease of values of the instrumented indentation hardness (HIT) and the instrumented indentation elastic modulus (EIT) characterising the intermetallic phase occurring in the form of polygons, rich in aluminium, iron, silicon, manganese, and chromium, containing also copper, nickel, and vanadium. Increased cooling rate resulted in supersaturation of the matrix with alloying elements.
The paper presents the results of examination concerning optimization of the σ phase precipitates with respect to the functional properties of ferritic-austenitic cast steel. The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear. The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. Morphology and quantities of σ phase precipitates were determined, as well as its influence on the erosion and corrosion wear resistance. It was shown that annealing at 800°C or 900°C significantly improves tribological properties as compared with the supersaturated state, and the best erosion and corrosion wear resistance achieved due to the ferrite decomposition δ → γ’ + σ was exhibited in the case of annealing at the temperature of 800°C for 3 hours.
High-alloy corrosion-resistant ferritic-austenitic steels and cast steels are a group of high potential construction materials. This is evidenced by the development of new alloys both low alloys grades such as the ASTM 2101 series or high alloy like super or hyper duplex series 2507 or 2707 [1-5]. The potential of these materials is also presented by the increasing frequency of sintered components made both from duplex steel powders as well as mixtures of austenitic and ferritic steels [6, 7]. This article is a continuation of the problems presented in earlier works [5, 8, 9] and its inspiration were technological observed problems related to the production of duplex cast steel. The analyzed AISI A3 type cast steel is widely used in both wet exhaust gas desulphurisation systems in coal fired power plants as well as in aggressive working environments. Technological problems such as hot cracking presented in works [5, 8], with are effects of the rich chemical composition and phenomena occurring during crystallization, must be known to the technologists. The presented in this work phenomena which occur during the crystallization and cooling of ferritic-austenitic cast steel were investigated using numerical methods with use of the ThermoCalc and FactSage® software, as well with use of experimental thermal-derivative analysis.
Manganese is an effective element used for the modification of needle intermetallic phases in Al-Si alloy. These particles seriously degrade mechanical characteristics of the alloy and promote the formation of porosity. By adding manganese the particles are being excluded in more compact shape of “Chinese script” or skeletal form, which are less initiative to cracks as Al5FeSi phase. In the present article, AlSi7Mg0.3 aluminium foundry alloy with several manganese content were studied. The alloy was controlled pollution for achieve higher iron content (about 0.7 wt. % Fe). The manganese were added in amount of 0.2 wt. %, 0.6 wt. %, 1.0 wt. % and 1.4 wt. %. The influence of the alloying element on the process of crystallization of intermetallic phases were compared to microstructural observations. The results indicate that increasing manganese content (> 0.2 wt. % Mn) lead to increase the temperature of solidification iron rich phase (TAl5FeSi) and reduction this particles. The temperature of nucleation Al-Si eutectic increase with higher manganese content also. At adding 1.4 wt. % Mn grain refinement and skeleton particles were observed.
The article presents results of research on the influence of variable parameters of horizontal continuous casting on the structure of AlCu4MgSi (EN AW-2017A) alloy ingots. The special character of the process allows for a continuous change of some of its parameters, namely, of the casting speed and of the rate of the cooling fluid flow thorough the crystallizer. These parameters have a significant impact on the crystallization process of the liquid metal. Depending on the cooling rate, intensity of the convection inside the solidifying alloy, and its chemical composition, there may arise some differences in the structure of the cast. In this study, ingots obtained at different casting speeds have been analyzed. The research methodology, based on light microscopy and electron microscopy (SEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), allowed for a thorough examination of the structure of the studied materials. The results were shown that an increase in the ingot casting speed leads to an increase in the average grain surface area.
With the continuous increase of output power ratings, multi-phase (multichannel) interleaved power factor corrector (IPFC) is gradually employed in domestic and commercial inverter air-conditioners. IPFC can solve several main problems, such as power rating increase, power device selection, input current ripple reduction as well as inductor on-board mounting. But for a multi-phase IPFC, the key problem is that it should show rapid dynamic responds and good current sharing capability, so in this paper the aim is to improve the dynamic performance and current sharing capability by means of passivity control theory. Considering the power circuit topology of a four-phase IPFC, an EL (Euler-Lagrange) mathematical model is established when the IPFC operates in continuous conduction mode (CCM). Then the passivity of the four-phase IPFC is proved, and the passivity-based controller using the state variables feedback and damping injection method is designed. The proposed control scheme, which is easy to control and needs no proportion integral controller, has strong robustness on disturbance from singlephase AC input voltage, the load as well as the parameters of the employed devices. Even in wide-range load condition, the mains current has a fast dynamic response and the average output voltage almost keep unchanged. As a result, the main functions of the four-phase IPFC are implemented including nearly unitary power factor and constant DC output voltage. Meanwhile, the four-phase IPFC acquires an excellent current sparing effect after using passivity-based controller. The above analysis has been proved with simulated results by means of MATLAB/SIMULINK and experimental results, showing that the passivity-based IPFC controller has superior performances and feasibility.
Cu–4.7 wt. % Sn alloy wire with Ø10 mm was prepared by two-phase zone continuous casting technology, and the temperature field, heat and fluid flow were investigated by the numerical simulated method. As the melting temperature, mold temperature, continuous casting speed and cooling water temperature is 1200 °C, 1040 °C, 20 mm/min and 18 °C, respectively, the alloy temperature in the mold is in the range of 720 °C–1081 °C, and the solid/liquid interface is in the mold. In the center of the mold, the heat flow direction is vertically downward. At the upper wall of the mold, the heat flow direction is obliquely downward and deflects toward the mold, and at the lower wall of the mold, the heat flow deflects toward the alloy. There is a complex circular flow in the mold. Liquid alloy flows downward along the wall of the mold and flows upward in the center.
The paper presents a solution for sensorless field oriented control (FOC) system for five-phase induction motors with improved rotor flux pattern. In order to obtain the advantages of a third harmonic injection with a quasi-trapezoidal flux shape, two vector models, α1–β1 and α3–β3, were transformed into d1–q1, d3–q3 rotating frames, which correlate to the 1st and 3rd harmonic plane respectively. A linearization approach of the dual machine model in d–q coordinate frames is proposed by introducing a new additional variable “x” which is proportional to the electromagnetic torque. By applying the static feedback control law, a dual mathematical model of the five-phase induction motor was linearized to synthesize a control system in which the electromagnetic torque and the rotor flux can be independently controlled. The results shows the air gap flux shape in steady as well transient states under various load conditions. Moreover, the implemented control structure acquires fault tolerant properties and leads to possible emergency running with limited operation capabilities. The fault-tolerant capability of the analyzed machine was guaranteed by a special implemented control system with a dedicated speed observer, which is insensitive to open-phase fault situation. The experimental tests have been performed with single and double-open stator phase fault. A torque measurement was implemented to present the mechanical characteristics under healthy and faulty conditions of the drive system.
The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
Most systems used in quantum physics experiments require the efficient and simultaneous recording different multi-photon coincidence detection events. In such experiments, the single-photon gated counting systems can be applicable. The main sources of errors in these systems are both instability of the clock source and their imperfect synchronization with the excitation source. Below, we propose a solution for improvement of the metrological parameters of such measuring systems. Thus, we designed a novel integrated circuit dedicated to registration of signals from a photon number resolving detectors including a phase synchronizer module. This paper presents the architecture of a high-resolution (~60 ps) digital phase synchronizer module cooperating with a multi-channel coincidence counter. The main characteristic feature of the presented system is its ability to fast synchronization (requiring only one clock period) with the measuring process. Therefore, it is designed to work with various excitation sources of a very wide frequency range. Implementation of the phase synchronizer module in an FPGA device enabled to reduce the synchronization error value from 2.857 ns to 214.8 ps.
To find effective and practical methods to distinguish gas-liquid two-phase flow patterns, new flow pattern maps are established using the differential pressure through a classical Venturi tube. The differential pressure signal was first decomposed adaptively into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the ensemble empirical mode decomposition. Hilbert marginal spectra of the IMFs showed that the flow patterns are related to the amplitude of the pressure fluctuation. The cross-correlation method was employed to sift the characteristic IMF, and then the energy ratio of the characteristic IMF to the raw signal was proposed to construct flow pattern maps with the volumetric void fraction and with the two-phase Reynolds number, respectively. The identification rates of these two maps are verified to be 91.18% and 92.65%. This approach provides a cost-effective solution to the difficult problem of identifying gas-liquid flow patterns in the industrial field.