Introduction: The history of using performance-enhancing substances (PES) is long and it goes back to ancient times. At present, PES are employed at all levels of sport competition, starting from Olympic level contestants to individuals recreationally involved in various sports disciplines. Purpose: The objective of the study was examining the views on doping in sports in a group of physicians, together with evaluating the frequency of their contacts with this phenomenon, in their professional activities. Methods: The investigation was carried out using a validated questionnaire developed by the authors. Questionnaire included 34 questions divided into 6 sections. In total, 257 individuals participated in the study. The percentage of answers was 75.81%. Results: Among the responders, 96.50% believed that using PES by sports competitors represented unethical behavior. 42% participants declared that they met doping problem during their professional career. Almost one-third of the physicians (28.79%) declared that during their work, they consulted patient suffering from adverse side eff ects resulting from using PES. Conclusions: In Poland, physicians regard using PES as unethical behavior. They believe that a health care system professional should participate in counteracting doping in sports. Physicians — regardless of their specialty — are also exposed to PES-related problems in their professional work. In view of the above facts and the consistently increasing popularity of PES, extending the knowledge in this field among physicians seems to be of importance to allow for their offering better medical services to their patients.
The article shows the methodology and calculation procedures based on Lagrange polynomial interpolation which were used to determine standard performance characteristics of the Polish production engine, type ANDORIA 4CTi90-1BE6. They allow to simplify the experimental research by maintaining a minimum number of measurement points and estimating the remaining data in an analytical way. The methods presented are convenient when it comes to the practical side because they eliminate the need for exploration of mathematical equations describing the various curves, which can be cumbersome and time consuming in the case of nonautomated accounts. The results of analysis were applied to actual experimental results, indicating sufficient accuracy of the resulting approximations. As a result, procedures may be used in bench testing of a similar profile, especially with repeated cycles of the experiment, such as optimization of operating parameters of combustion engines.
We are exploring the relationship between accents and expression in piano performance. Accents are local events that attract a listener's attention and are either evident from the score (immanent) or added by the performer (performed). Immanent accents are associated with grouping (phrasing), metre, melody and harmony. In piano music, performed accents involve changes in timing, dynamics, articulation, and pedalling; they vary in amplitude, form, and duration. We analyzed the first eight bars of Chopin Prelude op. 28 n. 6. In a separate study, music theorists had marked grouping, melodic and harmonic accents on the score and estimated the importance (salience) of each. Here, we mathematically modeled timing and dynamics in the prelude in two ways using Director Musices (DM) - a software package for automatic rendering of expressive performance. The first rendering focused on phrasing following existing and tested procedures in DM. The second focused on accents - timing and dynamics in the vicinity of the accents identified by the theorists. In an informal listening test, 10 out of 12 participants (5 of 6 musicians and 5 of 6 non-musicians) preferred the accent-based formulation, and several stated that it had more variation of timing and dynamics from one phrase to the next.
The new control method for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) and Brushless DC Motor (BLDCM) is presented. Balance of power in three-phase permanent magnet synchronous motor is based on conservation of energy law. Space vector theory determined by instantaneous value of phase quantities is applied in mathematical analysis. It makes possible to estimate instantaneous values of reactive energy and electromagnetic torque. The presented control method belongs to flux-oriented method; it synchronizes current vector in relation to stator flux vector. New structure of control system as well as block diagram containing all basic elements and operating modes of specific blocks are described. Simulation studies and experimental results for two kinds of motors: PMSM and BLDCM were performed based on the dSPACE development DS1103 system.
A brief review of the existing autonomous underwater vehicles, their types, design, movement abilities and missions is presented. It is shown, the shape optimization design and enhancement of their efficiency is the main problem for further development of multipurpose glider technologies. A comparative study of aerodynamic performance of three different shape designs (the airfoil NACA0022 based (I), flattened ellipsoidal (II) and cigar-type (III) bodies of the same volumes) has been carried out. Geometrical modelling, meshing and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been carried out with AnSys15.0. The pathlines and wall shear stress distributions have been computed to understand the advantages and disadvantages of each shape. The lift and drag coefficients, aerodynamic quality, power index and pitching moment have been computed. The higher efficiency of the shape I/shape II at higher/lower angles of attack (> 20o and < 20o) has been found. The shape III develops high speeds at the same angles of attack and has higher manoeuvrability at relatively low aerodynamic quality. The comparative analysis of the flow capabilities of studied autonomous undersea vehicles proposes some design improvement for increasing their energy efficiency and flow stability.
The dynamic performance of cylindrical double-tube adsorption heat pump is numerically analysed using a non-equilibrium model, which takes into account both heat and mass transfer processes. The model includes conservation equations for: heat transfer in heating/cooling fluids, heat transfer in the metal tube, and heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. The mathematical model is numerically solved using the method of lines. Numerical simulations are performed for the system water-zeolite 13X, chosen as the working pair. The effect of the evaporator and condenser temperatures on the adsorption and desorption kinetics is examined. The results of the numerical investigation show that both of these parameters have a significant effect on the adsorption heat pump performance. Based on computer simulation results, the values of the coefficients of performance for heating and cooling are calculated. The results show that adsorption heat pumps have relatively low efficiency compared to other heat pumps. The value of the coefficient of performance for heating is higher than for cooling
Rescheduling is a frequently used reactive strategy in order to limit the effects of disruptions on throughput times in multi-stage production processes. However, organizational deficits often cause delays in the information on disruptions, so rescheduling cannot limit disruption effects on throughput times optimally. Our approach strives for an investigation of possible performance improvements in multi-stage production processes enabled by realtime rescheduling in the event of disruptions. We developed a methodology whereby we could measure these possible performance improvements. For this purpose, we created and implemented a simulation model of a multi-stage production process. We defined system parameters and varied factors according to our experiment design, such as information delay, lot sizes and disruption durations. The simulation results were plotted and evaluated using DoE methodology. Dependent on the factor settings, we were able to prove large improvements by real-time rescheduling regarding the absorption of disruption effects in our experiments.
The paper presents the theory of constraints (TOC) as a method used to improve results in a complex, multiplants organization. In the article the assumptions of this method has been presented as well as iterative approach concerning how to launch it in practice. Main indicators for organizational effectiveness assessment have also been presented. The maximization of production assets utilization is a key issue for competitive organization in the changing market conditions. An appropriate usage of the theory of constraints enables efficient allocation of financial assets among particular plants within a capital group. An application of a method has been presented based on throughput analyses and its influence to improve financial results of one plant organization and synergy effect in multiplants organization. The theory of constraints can be used in almost every kind of business sectors, among them are metal and foundry industries. It allows to be implemented in production organizations as well as in any other company’s profiles. Everywhere the constraint has been defined there is a chance to achieve an improvement following the presented method. The examples have been taken from the casting plants which use continuous and mold casting technologies. The examples show that TOC approach can be successfully employed as the improvement tool of foundries’ performances.
This paper presents the results of research on high performance concretes (HPC) modified by theaddition of polypropylene fibres (PP fibres). The scope of the research was the measurement of theresidual transport properties of heated and recooled concretes: gas permeability and surface waterabsorption. Seven types of concrete modified with fibrillated PP fibres were tested. Three lengths: 6,12 and 19 mm and three amounts of fibres: 0, 0.9 and 1.8 kg/m3 were used. The research programmewas designed to determine which length of fibres, used in which minimum amount, will, after thefibres melt, permit the development of a connected network and pathway for gases and liquids.
This paper presents an estimation of performances by tests on composite material structures. In order to evaluate the effects on the structural behavior, tests changing the percentage of orientation of the fiber at 0, 45 and 90 degrees and mixing the unidirectional plies with the fabric ones have been done. Fixed the lay-up configuration and so the stacking sequence, two typology of structures have been analyzed; the first one having only unidirectional plies while the second one having a fabric ply (plain weave 0/90) in place of the top and bottom unidirectional plies. The openhole compressive strength and the filled-hole tensile strength and moduli have been characterized by test. A total of 72 specimens have been used in the test campaign. In order to well compare the test results a Performance Weight Index (PWI) has been introduced by authors in order to normalize the strength of each laminate with respect to its weight/unit of surface. Results and different laminate behaviors have been evaluated and discussed.
The paper presents the results of experimental investigations performed by the authors on the casting position factor. It was proved that at the height of reinforced concrete elements there are different bond conditions. Moreover, the bond depends on concrete mechanical properties, element height as well as concrete mix composition and consistency. The experiments also showed the advisability of determining the casting position factor separately for bars from normal concrete and those from high–performance concrete (HPC). The analysis of investigation results has shown that “good” bond conditions are a relative concept and depend on, among other things, element height. The higher the element the better the concrete to lower bars bond. Consequently, elements of considerable height (higher than 600 mm) demonstrate a bigger difference between concrete to upper bars bond and concrete to lower bars bond.
This paper presents an effect of general dimensions of a reverse flow mini-cyclone with a tangential inlet on its separation efficiency. Several mini-cyclone design modifications are presented and evaluated for use in the air filtration systems of motor vehicles. Local design improvements of three components of a reverse flow mini-cyclone with a tangential inlet D-40 of an air filter fitted in an all-terrain vehicle engine were introduced. An asymmetric curvilinear shape of an outlet port was used instead of a symmetrical shape. An outlet vortex finder inlet port shape was streamlined, and a cylindrical outlet vortex finder of the cyclone was replaced with a conical one. Experimental evaluation of the effects of the design improvements of mini-cyclone on its separation efficiency and performance as well as flow resistance was carried out. Separation efficiency of the cyclone was determined using the mass method as a product of dust mass retained by the mini-cyclone and supplied to the mini-cyclone in a specified time. Separation performance of the cyclone was determined as the largest dust particle dz =dzmax in a specific test cycle in the cyclone outlet air stream. A polydisperse PTC-D test dust used in Poland, a substitute for AC-fine test dust was used. Dust concentration at the mini-cyclone inlet was kept at 1 g/m3. The size and total number of dust particles in the air stream at the outlet of the original mini-cyclone and at the outlet of the improved mini-cyclone was determined using a particle counter.
Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting many plants but Mentha viridis L., and Mentha piperita L., were low in number of infestation. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the resistance of M. viridis and M. piperita plants against T. urticae by studying the external shape and internal contents of those plants. For morphological studies, dried leaves were covered with gold utilizing an Edwards Scan coat six sputter-coater. For histological studies, arrangements of Soft Tissue technique were used. For phytochemical studies, the plants were cut, dried and then high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. While feeding the mites were collected from the area between oily glands, trichomes and respiratory stomata in both mint species. The most important leaf structures in aromatic plants are the oily glands found on the external part of the leaves (both upper and lower epidermis). The number of oil glands in M. viridis leaves was greater than in M. piperita; the trichomes on the epidermis of M. viridis were greater in number than in M. piperita; the spongy mesophyll in M. viridis was much thicker than in M. piperita. The essential oils in the leaves of both mint species contained 71 compounds representing 99.61% of the total oil constituents identified from M. viridis before infestation, and 90.95% after infestation, and about 99.65% from M. piperita before infestation, and 99.98% after infestation.
In this study a cooling ejector cycle coupled to a compression heat pump is analyzed for simultaneous cooling and heating applications. In this work, the influence of the thermodynamic parameters and fluid nature on the performances of the hybrid system is studied. The results obtained show that this system presents interesting performances. The comparison of the system performances with hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and natural fluids is made. The theoretical results show that the a low temperature refrigerant R32 gives the best performance.
The Traffic Flow Description (TFD) option of the IP protocol is an experimental option, designed by the Authors and described by the IETF’s Internet Draft. This option was intended for signalling for QoS purposes. Knowledge about forthcoming traffic (such as the amount of data that will be transferred in a given period of time) is conveyed in the fields of the option between end-systems. TFD-capable routers on a path (or a multicast tree) between the sender and receiver(s) are able to read this information, process it and use it for bandwidth allocation. If the time horizons are short enough, bandwidth allocation will be performed dynamically. In the paper a performance evaluation of an HD video transmission QoS assured with the use of the TFD option is presented. The analysis was made for a variable number of video streams and a variable number of TCP flows that compete with the videos for the bandwidth of the shared link. Results show that the dynamic bandwidth allocation using the TFD option better assures the QoS of HD video than the classic solution, based on the RSVP protocol.
The telemetry data are essential in evaluating the performance of aircraft and diagnosing its failures. This work combines the oversampling technology with the run-length encoding compression algorithm with an error factor to further enhance the compression performance of telemetry data in a multichannel acquisition system. Compression of telemetry data is carried out with the use of FPGAs. In the experiments there are used pulse signals and vibration signals. The proposed method is compared with two existing methods. The experimental results indicate that the compression ratio, precision, and distortion degree of the telemetry data are improved significantly compared with those obtained by the existing methods. The implementation and measurement of the proposed telemetry data compression method show its effectiveness when used in a high-precision high-capacity multichannel acquisition system.
A metrological verification of a high precision digital multimeter was made by the laboratory of calibration of programmable electrical multifunction instruments of the National Institute of Metrological Research (INRIM) in order to verify its accuracy and stability. The instrument had been tested for a period of six months for five low-frequency electrical quantities (DC and AC Voltage and Current and DC Resistance). Its stability and precision were compared with the accuracy specifications of the manufacturer. As a new approach, a performance index of the DMM was introduced and evaluated for each examined measurement point. The DMM showed a satisfactory agreement with its specifications to be considered at the level of other top-class DMMs and even better in some measurements points.
The self-consistent optical-electrical-thermal-gain model of the oxide-conﬁned edge-emitting diode laser has been used to simulate the room-temperature operation of the long-wavelength 1.3-µm quantum-dot (InGa)As/GaAs diode laser. The validityof the model has been veriﬁed using some experimental results for comparison. An impact of quantum-dot densityon laser operation characteristics as well as on temperature dependence of lasing threshold have been discussed.
The paper presents selected issues relating to the energy analysis of the air heat pump for hot water. Experimental studies on a test stand made it possible to verify the operational parameters of the heat pump under actual conditions of use. The study shows that heating the water in the storage tank with the capacity of 130 dm3 from 25°C to 40°C took approximately 60 minutes and the water heating for another 5°C took 30 minutes longer. The heat pump process in the field of higher water temperature in the tank is less effective, thus heating the water in the tank above 50°C is less favorable economically.
The ductility of High Performance Concrete (HPC) can develop both in tension and compression.This aspect is evidenced in the present paper by measuring the mechanical response of normalvibrated concrete (NC), self-compacting concrete (SC) and some HPCs cylindrical specimensunder uniaxial and triaxial compression. The post-peak behaviour of these specimens is definedby a non-dimensional function that relates the inelastic displacement and the relative stress duringsoftening. Both for NC and SC, the increase of the fracture toughness with the confinement stressis observed. Conversely, all the tested HPCs, even in absence of confinement, show practically thesame ductility measured in normal and self-compacting concretes with a confining pressure. Thus,the presence of HPC in compressed columns is itself sufficient to create a sort of active distributedconfinement.
This paper is devoted to application of adsorption process for cooling power generation in a cooling devices. Construction and working principle of a water-silica gel adsorption chiller has been presented and the basic refrigeration cycle has been discussed. The article outlines behavior of a single-stage adsorption system influenced by changes in cycle time. The effect of cycle time and inlet chilled water temperatures on the main system performance parameters has been analysed
Urethane foam mattresses are commonly used as cushioning when placing panel flooring on the floor slab of a building. Urethane foam consists of elastic fibres with pores. Both elements can affect the performance of the insulation against impact sounds. However, these effects have not yet been detailed, and they may change if the material properties or constitution of the fibres and pores in the cushioning change. In this paper, we propose an analytical model for use in evaluating the performance of insulation against floor impact sound. This model was used to examine the contribution of the pores versus the elastic fibres to wave transmissions from the flooring surface to the slab. The results reveal that the constitution of the foam (either open or closed cells of pores) and the thickness and hardness of the cushion layer strongly affect the sound insulation performance of the floor.
The increase of ship’s energy utilization efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions have been high lightened in recent years and have become an increasingly important subject for ship designers and owners. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) is seeking measures to reduce the CO2emissions from ships, and their proposed energy efficiency design index (EEDI) and energy efficiency operational indicator (EEOI) aim at ensuring that future vessels will be more efficient. Waste heat recovery can be employed not only to improve energy utilization efficiency but also to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper, a typical conceptual large container ship employing a low speed marine diesel engine as the main propulsion machinery is introduced and three possible types of waste heat recovery systems are designed. To calculate the EEDI and EEOI of the given large container ship, two software packages are developed. From the viewpoint of operation and maintenance, lowering the ship speed and improving container load rate can greatly reduce EEOI and further reduce total fuel consumption. Although the large container ship itself can reach the IMO requirements of EEDI at the first stage with a reduction factor 10% under the reference line value, the proposed waste heat recovery systems can improve the ship EEDI reduction factor to 20% under the reference line value.