The objective of this research is to investigate the perception of owner – managers and their employees regarding entrepreneurial leadership. To develop the research, two questions are raised related to the similarities or differences of the perceptions of both groups with what is established in the literature and between the self – evaluation of the owner – managers and their employees on whether the former perform as an entrepreneurial leader. As a research method, both groups are asked to perform, first individual evaluations and then to match certain behaviours and the levels at which they should appear at certain levels of entrepreneurial leadership capacity. The data gathered during the investigation were processed using the Categorical Principal Components Analysis and revealed the similarities and differences between the perceptions of the owner-managers and their employees on entrepreneurial leadership. In spite of not finding significant differences between what is established in the literature and among the perceptions of the groups under study, interesting nuances stand out that, if not identified and understood, could have a negative effect on the performance of SMEs. The results of the research demonstrated the importance of the approach of behaviour and perception in the study of entrepreneurial leadership.
Quality evaluation is very important for haptic rendering. In this paper, an objective evaluation method for a haptic rendering system based on haptic perception features is proposed. In the method, the haptic rendering process is compared to the real world perception process in a simple standardized procedure based on feature extraction and data analysis. A complete evaluation process for a simple haptic rendering task of pressing a virtual spring is presented as an example to explain the method in detail. Compared with the traditional objective method based on error statistics, the method is more concerned about the consistency of human subjective feelings rather than physical parameters, which makes the evaluation process more consistent with the haptic perception mechanism. The results of comparative analysis show that the method presented in this paper is simple, gives reliable results reflecting the consistency with subjective feeling and has a better discrimination ability for different kinds of devices and algorithms compared with the traditional evaluation methods.