The Ti15Mo alloy has been studied towards long-term corrosion performance in saline solution at 37°C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The physical and chemical characterization of the material were also investigated. The as-received Ti15Mo alloy exhibits a single β-phase structure. The thickness of single-layer structured oxide presented on its surface is ~4 nm. Impedance measurements revealed that the Ti15Mo alloy is characterized by spontaneous passivation in the solution containing chloride ions and formation of a double-layer structured oxide composed of a dense interlayer being the barrier layer against corrosion and porous outer layer. The thickness of this oxide layer, estimated based on the impedance data increases up to ~6 nm during 78 days of exposure. The observed fall in value of the log|Z|f = 0.01 Hz indicates a decrease in pitting corrosion resistance of Ti15Mo alloy in saline solution along with the immersion time. The detailed EIS study on the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion process and the capacitive behavior of the Ti15Mo electrode | passive layer | saline solution system was based on the concept of equivalent electrical circuit with respect to the physical meaning of the applied circuit elements. Potentiodynamic studies up to 9 V vs. SCE and SEM analysis show no presence of pitting corrosion what indicates that the Ti15Mo alloy is promising biomaterial to long-term medical applications.
As a result of introduction of the Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 on the energy performance of buildings, all of the EU member states are obliged to introduce legal regulations for energy performance of all newly constructed buildings. The key aim is to achieve close to zero energy use starting from the year 2021. Estimating effectiveness of the actions and the new possibilities requires an analysis of the multiple criteria. They comprise both the current conditions as well as the changes that have occurred in the recent years due to new legislation, the eff ects of the subsidies and the development of the housing stock. This paper presents a broad overview and diagnosis of current situation. The development of the energy-efficient and passive housing in Poland is considered in the context of financial incentives, availability of design knowledge and building technology as well as the role of the green building certification.
The aim of this paper is to show that a real order generalization of the dissipative concepts is a useful tool to determine the stability (in the Lyapunov and in the input-output sense) and to design control strategies not only for fractional order non-linear systems, but also for systems composed of integer and fractional order subsystems (mixed-order systems). In particular, the fractional control of integer order system (e.g. PIλ control) can be formalized. The key point is that the gradations of dissipativeness, passivity and positive realness concepts are related among them. Passivating systems is used as a strategy to stabilize them, which is studied in the non-adaptive as well as in the adaptive case.