The main purpose of the presented research is to investigate the partial discharge (PD) phenomenon variability under long-term AC voltage with particular consideration of the selected physical quantities changes while measured and registered by the acoustic emission method (AE). During the research a PD model source generating surface discharges is immersed in the brand new insulation mineral oil. Acoustic signals generated by the continuously occurred PDs within 168 hours are registered. Several qualitative and quantitative indicators are assigned to describe the PD variability in time. Furthermore, some longterm characteristics of the applied PD model source in mineral oil, are also presented according to acoustic signals emitted by the PD. Finally, various statistical tools are applied for the results analysis and presentation. Despite there are numerous contemporary research papers dealing with long-term PD analysis, such complementary and multiparametric approach has not been presented so far, regarding the presented research. According to the presented research from among all assigned indicators there are discriminated descriptors that could depend on PD long-term duration. On the grounds of the regression models analysis there are discovered trends that potentially allow to apply the results for modeling of the PD variability in time using the acoustic emission method. Subsequently such an approach may potentially support the development and extend the abilities of the diagnostic tools and maintenance policy in electrical power industry.
An acoustic emission method (AE) is widespread and often applied for partial discharge (PD) diagnostics, mainly due to its ease of application as well as noninvasiveness and relatively high sensitivity. This paper presents comparative analysis of AE signals measurement results archived under laboratory conditions as well as on-site actual AE signals generated by inside PDs in electrical power transformer during its normal service. Three different PD model sources are applied for laboratory research: point to point, multipoint to plate and surface type. A typical measuring set up commonly used for on-site transformer PD diagnostics is provided for the laboratory tasks: piezoelectric joint transducer, preamplifier, amplifier and measuring PC interface. During the on-site research there are three measuring tracks applied simultaneously. Time domain, time-frequency domain and statistical tools are used for registered AE signals analysis. A number of descriptors are proposed as a result of the analysis. In the paper, at- tempt of AE signals descriptors, archived under laboratory condition application possibilities for on-site PD diagnostics of power transformers during normal service is made.
An alternative method for analysis of acoustic emission (AE) signals generated by partial discharges (PD), based on a correlation between voltage phase run and AE pulses, so called phase resolved PD pattern (PRPD), is presented in the paper. PRPD pattern is a well-known analysis tool commonly used in such PD diagnostic methods as conventional electrical and UHF ones. Moreover, it yields various signal analysis abilities and allows a direct correlation indication between measurement results achieved using different methods. An original PRPD measurement methodology applied for AE method as well as some exemplary measurement results and further data analysis capabilities are presented in the paper. Also a comparative analysis of PRPD patterns achieved using various measurement methods and different PD source configurations have been investigated. All presented experiments were done under laboratory conditions using PD model sources immersed in the insulation oil. The main purpose of the presented research is to indicate an all-embracing analytical tool that yields an ability to direct comparison (qualitative as well as quantitative) of the AE measurement results with other commonly applied PD measurement methods. The presented results give a solid fundamental for further research work concerning a direct correlation method for AE and other described in the paper diagnostic techniques, mainly in order to continue PD phenomena analysis and assessment in real life high voltage apparatus insulation systems under normal onsite operation conditions.
Although the gas insulated structures have a high degree of reliability, the unavoidable defects are primary reason of their failures. Partial discharge (PD) has been regarded as an effective indication for condition monitoring and diagnosis of gas insulated switchgears (GISs) to ensure their reliable and stable operation. Among various PD detection methods, the ultra-high frequency (UHF) technique has the advantages of on-line motoring and defect classification. In this paper, there are presented 7 types of artificial electrode systems fabricated for simulation of real insulation defects in gas insulated structures. A real-time measurement system was developed to acquire defect patterns in a form of phase-resolve partial discharge (PRPD) intensity graph, using a UHF sensor. Further, the discharge distribution and statistical characteristics were extracted for defect identification using a neural network algorithm. In addition, a conversion experiment was proposed by detecting the PD pulse simultaneously using a non-induction resistor and a UHF sensor. A relationship between the magnitude of UHF signal and the amplitude of apparent charge was established, which was used for evaluation of PD using the UHF sensor.
A computer measurement system, designed and built by authors, dedicated to location and description of partial discharges (PD) in oil power transformers examined by means of the acoustic emission (AE) method is presented. The measurement system is equipped with 8 measurement channels and ensures: monitoring of signals, registration of data in real time within a band of 25–1000 kHz in laboratory and real conditions, basic and advanced analysis of recorded signals. The basic analysis carried out in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains deals with general properties of the AE signals coming from PDs. The advanced analysis, performed in the discrimination threshold domain, results in identification of signals coming from different acoustic sources as well as location of these sources in the examined transformers in terms of defined by authors descriptors and maps of these descriptors on the side walls of the tested transformer tank. Examples of typical results of laboratory tests carried out with the use of the built-in measurement system are presented.