The normotensive (Wistar) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats were examined to assess the response of the organism to selenium (Se) overdose. Moreover, the effect of zinc (Zn) and vitamin E, i.e. dietary components interacting in many biochemical processes with Se, on the Se uptake was evaluated. The control group was fed an untreated diet, and the diets of two other groups were overdosed with Se in the form of sodium selenite (9 mg/kg) and supplemented with Zn (13 mg/kg). Two experimental groups were fed a diet supplemented with Zn (13 mg/kg) and Se at an adequate level (0.009 mg/kg); a half of the animals was supplemented with vitamin E. The results showed significant differences in the Se contents between the rat strains in case of Se-overdosed groups, where in the liver and kidney tissue Se contents of SHR rats exceeded 3- and 7-fold the normotensive ones. The Se uptake was altered by the vitamin E; no effect of Zn was observed. Activities of antioxidant enzymes were determined in the animal tissues indicating different patterns according to rat strain, tissue analysed, and administered Se dose. Thus, Se overdose, for instance, via an incorrectly prepared dietary supplement, can result in serious imbalances of the biochemical status of the animals.
The operational mineral deposit reconnaissance tends to evaluate its parameters to conduct safe and profitable production. Particular deposit parameters, important from the point of mineral deposit management, are estimated on the basis of observations carried out by mining geological surveys. These observations usually involve sampling, drilling, laboratory analyses and others. The use of fuzzy description to assess the parameters of the mineral deposit was proposed in the paper. In the fuzzy characteristics, an imprecise descriptive description appeared in place of a particular numerical quantity. This approach was used to description of the ore deposit features (metal content, volume, and metal yield) by assigning them specific characteristic functions, whose distributions were based on basic statistical quantities. Characteristic functions can be used to prepare operational strategies for any configuration of required deposit parameters resulting from the production management needs. For this purpose, selected logical operators of fuzzy sets were used. In the next approach to fuzzy modeling, an opportunity to characterize the deposit in a subjective approach was indicated, where the assessment of the deposit parameters is based on rough, in some way, discretionary observation and evaluation. Such model construction enabled the overall assessment of the deposit from the point of view of any parameters. Through the implementation of appropriate inference rules, adequate fuzzy control planes were obtained, which may also be useful in the context of operational mine strategy planning.
The paper is focused on properties testing of materials used in form of iso-exo sleeves for risers in ferrous alloys foundry. They are grainyfibrous materials, containing components which initiate and upkeep exothermic reaction. Thermo-physical parameters characterizing such sleeves are necessary also to fill in reliable databases for computer simulation of processes in the casting-mould layout. Studies with use of a liquid alloy, especially regarding different sleeves bring valuable results, but are also relatively expensive and require longer test preparation time. A simplified method of study in laboratory conditions was proposed, in a furnace heated to a temperature above ignition temperature of sleeve material (initiation of exothermic reaction). This method allows to determine the basic parameters of each new sleeve supplied to foundries and assures relatively quick evaluation of sleeve quality, by comparison with previous sleeve supplies or with sleeves brought by new providers.
This article presents a review of the investigation of the possibility of increasing the efficiency of existing line test solutions for troubleshooting testing for IPTV over xDSL, by the results of experimental research on real system under commercial exploitation. At the beginning of this article the main weaknesses of the existing troubleshooting testing are described. In the continuation of the article the physical layer parameters of xDSL transceiver are listed. This article also provides a few specific examples of xDSL lines with their physical layer parameters of xDSL transceivers followed by analysis how they can be used for the purposes of more efficient measurement of parameters of copper pairs.
The petrographic composition of coal has a significant impact on its technological and sorption properties. That composition is most frequently determined by means of microscope quantitative analyses. Thus, aside from the purely scientific aspect, such measurements have an important practical application in the industrial usage of coal, as well as in issues related to the safety in underground mining facilities. The article discusses research aiming at analyzing the usefulness of selected parameters of a digital image description in the process of automatic identification of macerals of the inertinite group using neural networks. The description of the investigated images was based on statistical parameters determined on the basis of a histogram and co-occurrence matrix (Haralick parameters). Each of the studied macerals was described by means of a 20-element feature vector. An analysis of its principal components (PCA) was conducted, along with establishing the relationship between the number of the applied components and the effectiveness of the MLP network. Based on that, the optimum number of input variables for the investigated classification task was chosen, which resulted in reduction of the size of the network’s hidden layer. As part of the discussed research, the authors also analyzed the process of classification of macerals of the inertinite group using an algorithm based on a group of MLP networks, where each network possessed one output. As a result, average recognition effectiveness of 80.9% was obtained for a single MLP network, and of 93.6% for a group of neural networks. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to use the proposed methodology as a tool supporting microscopic analyses of coal.
A transformer is an important part of power transmission and transformation equipment. Once a fault occurs, it may cause a large-scale power outage. The safety of the transformer is related to the safe and stable operation of the power system. Aiming at the problem that the diagnosis result of transformer fault diagnosis method is not ideal and the model is unstable, a transformer fault diagnosis model based on improved particle swarm optimization online sequence extreme learning machine (IPSO-OS-ELM) algorithm is proposed. The improved particle swarmoptimization algorithm is applied to the transformer fault diagnosis model based on the OS-ELM, and the problems of randomly selecting parameters in the hidden layer of the OS-ELM and its network output not stable enough, are solved by optimization. Finally, the effectiveness of the improved fault diagnosis model in improving the accuracy is verified by simulation experiments.
The effect of monoterpenoid 1,8-cineol on the toxicity and physiology of elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Müller under laboratory conditions (26 ± 1°C, 65 ± 10% RH and 16L : 8D h) was investigated. Initially, LC30 and LC50 values of the constituent were estimated to be 23.5 ppm and 31.9 ppm for the last instar larvae after 48 h, respectively. Significant changes were observed in the values of relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), approximate digestibility (AD) and consumption index (CI) between control and treated larvae with 1,8-cineol. The amounts of protein, glucose and urea decreased in the treated larvae in comparison with control. Similar findings were observed in the activities of alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase while the activities of glutathione S-transferase and esterase significantly increased in the treated larvae using CDNB and α-naphtyl acetates as the substrates. Morphological and histological changes brought about by 1,8-cineol in the present study are indicative of growth inhibition targeting specific organs such as those of reproduction. We believe that 1,8-cineol can be considered as a safe and environmentally friendly compound.
The paper presents a proposal of using additional statistical parameters such as: standard deviation, variance, maximum and minimum increases of the observed value that were determined during measurements of temperature fields created on the surface of the tested electrochemical capacitor. The measurements were carried out using thermographic methods in order to support assessment of the condition of electrochemical capacitor under classic durability tests based on methods of determination of capacity and equivalent series resistance. The possibility of using some statistical parameters in assessment of the electrochemical capacitor quality was illustrated. The applied measurement methodology and the results of research associated with the classic methods of supercapacitors’ assessment are presented. The obtained results indicate that the variability of some statistical parameters of temperature fields can be directly related to changing the values of standard parameters describing electrochemical capacitor, which are capacitance and equivalent series resistance.
The paper presents application of a modified, symmetrical Bouc-Wen model to simulate the mechanical behaviour of high-frequency piezoelectric actuators (PAs). In order to identify parameters of the model, a two-step algorithm was developed. In its first stage, the mechanical parameters were identified by taking into account their bilinear variability and using a square input voltage waveform. In the second step, the hysteresis parameters were determined based on a periodic excitation. Additionally, in order to reduce the influence of measurement errors in determination of selected derivatives the continuum wavelet transform (CWT) and translation-rotation transformation (TRT) methods were applied. The results proved that the modified symmetrical Bouc-Wen model is able to describe the mechanical behaviour of PAs across a wide frequency range.
The most important feature of bells is their sound. Its clarity and beauty depend, first of all, on the bell’s geometry - particularly the shape of its profile, but also on the quality of alloy used to its cast. Hence, if the melting and pouring parameters could influence the alloy’s properties, what influence they would have on the frequencies of bell’s tone. In the article authors present their own approaches to find answers on that and more questions.
The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the effect of electric car performance characteristics on vehicle energy consumption and driving range. The test object was a Nissan Leaf electric vehicle. The characteristic curves of basic and additional resistance to motion (sum of rolling resistance and air resistance and inertia resistance or grade resistance, respectively) were applied to the model characteristic curve of electric motor torque of the tested vehicle. Based on that, the graphs describing the relationships between vehicle energy consumption and vehicle speed were made (for specific values of car acceleration / acclivity grade) as well as the relations between vehicle driving range and its traction properties. It was concluded that the use of performance characteristics significantly increased the vehicle’s energy consumption and decreased the available vehicle’s driving range.
This paper considers the assessment of attenuation in aluminium alloys castings and in cast iron prepared by gravity casting method and by casting under pressure. The issue of ultrasound attenuation is important in setting the conditions of non-destructive (NDT) testing, especially in casted materials. The characteristics of the ultrasonic technique and ultrasonic attenuation and the calculation of the attenuation and the velocity of ultrasound are presented in the theoretical part of this paper. For experimental measurements, cylindrical castings from AlSi alloy (a hypoeutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 7% - AlSi7 and a eutectic alloy with a silicon content of about 12% - AlSi12) and from grey and ductile cast iron were made. The ultrasonic records of the casting control, the calculation of ultrasound attenuation for individual samples are listed and described in the experimental part. The evaluation of measurements and comparison of calculated ultrasound attenuation is at the end of this article.
This study investigates the influence of four imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) present in wastewater on the activated sludge process. In addition, experiments with inactivated sludge to assess the capacity of this sorbent to remove ILs from the wastewater were conducted. It occurred that the presence of ionic liquids in wastewater reduces biomass growth and size of the sludge flocs. The strongest effect has been found for IL 6 (1-hexyl-2H-3-methyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolium iodide) with the longest alkyl chain length. Also, the degree of ILs removal increases with the alkyl chain length and decreases with the increase of initial concentration of ILs in wastewater. IL 6 reaches the highest degree of ILs removal from wastewater but inhibits the biomass growth and growth of sludge flocs in a greater extent than other tested compounds. Moreover, it was confirmed that newly synthesized ionic liquids can be adsorbed onto inactivated sludge. IL 6 could be adsorbed in a higher degree than other ionic liquids. This adsorption was described by Langmuir isotherm, whereas adsorption of other ionic liquids was described by Freundlich isotherm.
The work is an attempt to assess piped water quality in four counties located in east central Poland. Piped water was analysed for three successive years in each county. Water samples were tested for the following physical and chemical parameters: turbidity, colour, conductivity, taste, odour, pH, nitrates (III), nitrates (V), iron and manganese. They were compared with the current standard values. Preliminary data analysis included an analysis of maximum and minimum values of physical and chemical parameters, and it revealed that turbidity, colour, iron and manganese contents exceeded the permissible standards in all the counties. Percentages of parameters exceedances and mean values of the exceedances were used to rank the counties in terms of water quality. The ranking was obtained by means of multidimensional comparative analysis. It was demonstrated that best quality water was supplied by Węgrów County water supply system which was followed by Mińsk Mazowiecki County. The third rank was assigned to Łosice County and the poorest quality water was found to be supplied by Siedlce County water supply system.
The quarrying industry is changing the local landscape, forming deep open pits and spoil heaps in close proximity to them, especially lignite mines. The impact can include toxic soil material (low pH, heavy metals, oxidations etc.) which is the basis for further reclamation and afforestation. Forests that stand on spoil heaps have very different growth conditions because of the relief (slope, aspect, wind and rainfall shadows, supply of solar energy, etc.) and type of soil that is deposited. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology deliver point clouds (XYZ) and derivatives as raster height models (DTM, DSM, nDSM=CHM) which allow the reception of selected 2D and 3D forest parameters (e.g. height, base of the crown, cover, density, volume, biomass, etc). The automation of ALS point cloud processing and integrating the results into GIS helps forest managers to take appropriate decisions on silvicultural treatments in areas with failed plantations (toxic soil, droughts on south-facing slopes; landslides, etc.) or as regular maintenance. The ISOK country-wide project ongoing in Poland will soon deliver ALS point cloud data which can be successfully used for the monitoring and management of many thousands of hectares of destroyed post-industrial areas which according to the law, have to be afforested and transferred back to the State Forest.
In the present work, the performance of multilayer coated carbide tool was investigated considering the effect of cutting parameters during turning of 34CrMo4 Low alloy steel. It has high strength and creep strength, and good impact tenacity at low temperature. It can work at –110°C to 500°C. And EN 10083-1 34CrMo4 owns high static strength, impact tenacity, fatigue resistance, and hardenability; without overheating tendencies. The objective functions were selected in relation to the parameters of the cutting process: surface roughness criteria. The correlations between the cutting parameters and performance measures, like surface roughness, were established by multiple linear regression models. Highly significant parameters were determined by performing an Analysis of variance (ANOVA). During the experiments flank wear, cutting force and surface roughness value were measured throughout the tool life. The results have been compared with dry and wet-cooled turning. Analysis of variance factors of design and their interactions were studied for their significance. Finally, a model using multiple regression analysis between cutting speed, fee rate and depth of cut with the tool life was established.
This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.
The paper presents an estimation of liquefaction susceptibility of some soils from the coast of the Marmara Sea, which was heavily striken by the Kocaeli earthquake in 1999. Firstly, the results of field investigations are summarized. Then, the results of laboratory investigations of physical and mechanical properties of the soils collated from the sites investigated are presented. The mechanical properties relate to the compaction/liquefaction model of saturated soils. This model is briefly outlined, then respective experimental procedures dealing with its calibration described, and values of material parameters listed. Liquefaction potential of investigated soils is analysed using standard procedures, based on the grain size distribution curves and SPTs. Finally, the simulation of pore-pressure generation and onset of liquefaction of Turkish soils is carried out, using the compaction/liquefaction model. Discussion of some standard empirical procedures of estimation of liquefaction potential of saturated soils, conducted from the analytical point of view, is also presented.