The paper presents the method and results of measurements carried out at four secular points: P, — Wilczekodden, P2 — Hyttevika, P3 — Gashamna and P4 — Treskelodden. No essential changes were found in the distribution of the anomalous field ΔT with respect to the results of observations made in 1979.
Ice thickness is one of the most critical physical indicators in the ice science and engineering. It is therefore very necessary to develop in-situ automatic observation technologies of ice thickness. This paper proposes the principle of three new technologies of in-situ automatic observations of sea ice thickness and provides the findings of laboratory applications. The results show that the in-situ observation accuracy of the monitor apparatus based on the Magnetostrictive Delay Line (MDL) principle can reach ±2 mm, which has solved the “bottleneck” problem of restricting the fine development of a sea ice thermodynamic model, and the resistance accuracy of monitor apparatus with temperature gradient can reach the centimeter level and research the ice and snow substance balance by automatically measuring the glacier surface ice and snow change. The measurement accuracy of the capacitive sensor for ice thickness can also reach ±4 mm and the capacitive sensor is of the potential for automatic monitoring the water level under the ice and the ice formation and development process in water. Such three new technologies can meet different needs of fixed-point ice thickness observation and realize the simultaneous measurement in order to accurately judge the ice thickness.
Acoustic waves are a carrier of information mainly in environments where the use of other types of waves, for example electromagnetic waves, is limited. The term acoustical imaging is widely used in the ultrasonic engineering to imaging areas in which the acoustic waves propagate. In particular, ultrasound is widely used in the visualization of human organs-ultrasonography (Nowicki, 2010). Expanding the concept, acoustical imaging can also be used to presentation (monitoring) the current state of sound intensity distribution leading to characterization of sources in observed underwater region. This can be represented in the form of an acoustic characteristic of the area, for example as a spectrogram. Knowledge of the underwater world which is built by analogy to the perception of the space on the Earth's surface is to be systematize in the form of images. Those images arise as a result of graphical representation of processed acoustic signals. In this paper, it is explained why acoustic waves are used in underwater imaging. Furthermore, the passive and active systems for underwater observation are presented. The paper is illustrated by acoustic images, most of them originated from our own investigation.
An ideal observability subspace expression is stated for bilinear abstract system with bounded operator in Hilbert spaces. The case of finite dimentional space is also treated. However, it’s noticed that the state ideal observability can never be fulfilled within an infinite dimensional phase space in the case of scalar output. The case of bilinear discrete-time system with delays in observation is also described. To illustrate this work some examples are presented.
This paper presents a robust control technique for small-scale unmanned helicopters to track predefined trajectories (velocities and heading) in the presence of bounded external disturbances. The controller design is based on the linearized state-space model of the helicopter. The multivariable dynamics of the helicopter is divided into two subsystems, longitudinallateral and heading-heave dynamics respectively. There is no strong coupling between these two subsystems and independent controllers are designed for each subsystem. The external disturbances and model mismatch in the longitudinal-lateral subsystem are present in all (matched and mismatched) channels. This model mismatch and external disturbances are estimated as lumped disturbances using extended disturbance observer and an extended disturbance observer based sliding mode controller is designed for it to counter the effect of these disturbances. In the case of heading-heave subsystem, external disturbances and model mismatch only occur in matched channels so a second order sliding mode controller is designed for it as it is insensitive to matched uncertainties. The control performance is successfully tested in Simulink.
Single-frame methods of determining the attitude of a nanosatellite are compared in this study. The methods selected for comparison are: Single Value Decomposition (SVD), q method, Quaternion ESTimator (QUEST), Fast Optimal Attitude Matrix (FOAM) − all solving optimally the Wahba’s problem, and the algebraic method using only two vector measurements. For proper comparison, two sensors are chosen for the vector observations on-board: magnetometer and Sun sensors. Covariance results obtained as a result of using those methods have a critical importance for a non-traditional attitude estimation approach; therefore, the variance calculations are also presented. The examined methods are compared with respect to their root mean square (RMS) error and variance results. Also, some recommendations are given.
This research presents a comparative study for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methodologies for a photovoltaic (PV) system. A novel hybrid algorithm golden section search assisted perturb and observe (GSS-PO) is proposed to solve the problems of the conventional PO (CPO). The aim of this new methodology is to boost the efficiency of the CPO. The new algorithm has a very low convergence time and a very high efficiency. GSS-PO is compared with the intelligent nature-inspired multi-verse optimization (MVO) algorithm by a simulation validation. The simulation study reveals that the novel GSS-PO outperforms MVO under uniform irradiance conditions and under a sudden change in irradiance.