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Number of results: 14
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Abstract

In this paper an attempt will be made to analyse a number of surnames either directly derived from animal names or variously associated with representatives of the animal world which may be said to embody and provide a variation on the general conceptual metaphor HUMAN BEING IS ANIMAL and/or the ANIMAL NAME FOR PERSON ASSOCIATED WITH THAT NAME metonymy. Animal-related surnames represent a fragment of the English lexicon where morphology and (broadly understood) semantics meet and exert mutual infl uence on each other. It seems that in animal-based nomination language users employ such morphological mechanisms as, for example, affi xation or compounding which, in turn, seem to be conceptually motivated by metaphor and metonymy.
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Abstract

Searching and exploring the motives of continuing in the profession may be an important objective of efforts undertaken by researchers and people directly responsible for the organization and quality of work. Identifying the needs and expectations of the employee is an important element of her/his adaptation in the work environment. Because the age of life is one of the factors affecting the perception of the world and work, in this article motives of continuing professional activity in group of special educators are described in the age of life context.
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Abstract

The present study aims to scrutinize teacher motivation in relation to two individual level predictors, namely, self -efficacy and burnout among English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers. To this end, 142 English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers were selected from various English language institutes of Mashhad and Tehran, two cities in Iran. They were requested to complete three questionnaires: the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale, and the Work Tasks Motivation Scale for Teachers. The findings obtained via SEM revealed that the proposed model had a good fit with the empirical data. In particular, it was found that job motivation contributed significantly to burnout depletion. It was also revealed that self -efficacy positively predicted job motivation, and burnout negatively influenced self -efficacy. However, self -efficacy surpassed motivation in predicting EFL instructors’ burnout. Results were discussed from both theoretical standpoints as well as previous empirical findings. Finally, implications were presented.
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Abstract

This paper is presents the research and analysis of rock climbing routes in Slovakia. It is concerned with a specific set of proper names which are known and used among rock climbers. In the Slovak onomastics J. Bauko has predominantly researched such proper names. Rock climbing has its own rules, morals, and ethics. The aim of the paper is to analyse proper names of rock climbing routes and to analysed the onymic processes used in the formation of these names. Proper names of rock climbing routes represent a specific set of names which reflect culture, language, and the social situation. In the paper, we present an overview of the names of rock climbing routes in Slovakia and a division of the names according to the type of motivation.
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Abstract

This article first surveys the current, somewhat unproductive state of research into potential universals of translation. Then it considers in specific the “first translational response universal” (Malmkjær 2011), suggesting that it may be rooted in the cognitive mechanism of priming. Empirical evidence for this is next sought in the analysis of a set of 34 novice translations of the same short passage from Swedish into Polish, which are shown to exhibit the effects of priming to a considerable extent. Overall, the objective is to illustrate a possible way of investigating postulated translation universals: first identifying a cluster of cognitive mechanisms to motivate the universal, then determining the linguistic structures that are concrete manifestations of such mechanisms in languages meeting in translation. The proposed research procedure thus proceeds from a cognitive process to a detailed language structure, allowing for the examination of phenomena observed in the “third code” on the supra-cultural level.
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Abstract

Humans vary in many aspects of their psychology with differences routinely found in patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviours, setting individuals apart across time and place. Though many psychologists have attempted to account for these individual differences, one area that has continued to generate interest and disagreement is the concept of motivation. Today, understanding behavioural motivation remains one of the most important questions facing personality theorists. In an attempt to better account for human motivation, the present exploration reviews seminal theoretical positions put forward by Sigmund Freud from a Psychoanalytical perspective and contrastingly, that of Carl Rogers from the Humanistic approach. Critical consideration is specifically applied to how verifiable each perspective may be and the degree of empirical support either account has attained to date. Whilst understanding human motivation is not a new endeavour, the present exploration provides a contemporary critical assessment of traditional psychological explanations.
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Abstract

The article deals with the Russian and Polish phraseologisms including some proverbs and sayings describing madness and the lack of mind. The material has been presented with regard to dominating imaginations of madness and stupidity being displayed in the semantics of examined units. These units include – hitting, aside movement, the lack of sensitivity to outer stimuli, the fragmentation of entirety, lack of components, etc.
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Abstract

This work is complementary with Bogusław Wolniewicz’s text Elzenberg about Milosz. The circumstances surrounding the discovery of Czesław Milosz’s article Duty and Henryk Elzenberg’s polemic are portrayed here. Moreover, in the second part we have attempted to evaluate Joseph Conrad’s novel The Rover.
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Nauka | 2017 | No 4 | 197–206

Abstract

Professor Jerzy Pelc was the creator and long-time manager of the Department of Logical Semiotics, University of Warsaw. He also founded the Polish Society of Semiotics. He published six own books, among others Studies in Functional Logical Semiotics of Natural Language (1971; in English); he edited also dozens of volumes of Semiotic Studies and Library of Semiotic Thought. As Kotarbiński, his master, and Twardowski, the master of his master, Professor Pelc was a radical rationalist. This radical rationalism has linked him to atheism, anti-communism, a distance to politics, and a frown on the falsehood of public life. He was a great patriot – in his life and in his work. He considered himself a successor of the Lvov-Warsaw School tradition. In the field of metaphysics, Professor Pelc combined theoretical minimalism with anti-rationalist attitudes, including the postulate of precision and the requirement of criticism. The main field of his interest was logical – and broader: theoretical – semiotics. He advocated and largely developed the functional concept of signs. To traditional paradigms of research: historical, teleological, causal and prognostic ones – Professor Pelc has added a semiotic paradigm, determined by the question “What does it mean that p?”. Referring to the interdisciplinary fashion for interdisciplinary research, he conducted an analysis of the notion of INTERDISCIPLINARITY. In ontology, he analyzed the notions of OBJECT and CAUSALITY. In his approach, aesthetics was treated form a semiotic point of view: he sought mainly ways to logically rewrite its terminology. In particular, he reconstructed the main aesthetic notions: FORM and IDEOLOGY (of literary works), THEME, MOTIVE, METAPHOR and (literary) FICTION – as well as semiotic notions essential to the description of literary arts, namely the notions of ASSERTION and INTENSIONALITY. In the field of ethics, Professor Pelc declared himself as an advocate of the ideal of trustworthy guardian, which he took over from his teacher, Kotarbiński. In metaethics, he analyzed the notions of NORM, EVALUATION and HUMANITY. A master of Polish: beautiful Polish – he was certainly a true humanist.
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Abstract

According to the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and Polish Central Statistical Office the number of students systematically decreases since 2015. This demographic change was a reason to examine students motivation for undertaking their studies in order to improve educational program and to encourage students to peruse higher education. By approaching the subject of “Motivations for Undertaking Special Education Studies in The Opinion of Students at Pedagogical University of Cracow”, the answers were sought to the three following questions: What were the main reasons for choosing studies at Pedagogical University of Cracow? What motivators played a key role for students while selecting field of studies? What student’s personality traits did mainly influence their choice? Research material was collected basing on a self-designed questionnaire. The group of first-year 54 students year were tested, in which 39% didn’t know which specialization they would choose after a one year. The article’s conclusions present key factors motivating students for undertaking Special Education Studies and explain how personality traits influenced their choice.
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Abstract

The aim of the study is to present cycling as an active form of tourism in the context of the motivation of people cultivating it – in particular residents of the Municipality of Radom. The work indicates the essence and importance of cycling tourism, taking into account its types and infrastructure. Factors and trends influencing the development of cycling tourism – promoting a healthy lifestyle were discussed. Also presented are the results of research on the motivation of moving residents of the Municipality of Radom using the bike in individual age groups.
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Abstract

Participants in the study were recreational runners who completed measures of their orientation to exercise, the Five Factor Model of personality, self-efficacy as a specific adaptation (a socio-cognitive construct of personality) and measures of subjective well-being (life satisfaction) and eudaimonic well-being (life engagement). Consistent with previous research, task-oriented (internally focused) motivation to exercise was positively related to extraversion and to conscientiousness, and ego-oriented (externally focused) motivation was positively related to extraversion. Also consistent with previous research, self-efficacy and measures of well-being were positively related to extraversion and conscientiousness. Mediational analyses found that well-being mediated relationships between task-oriented motives and both extraversion and conscientiousness. Self-efficacy mediated the relationship between ego-oriented motives and extraversion. The implications of these results for the study individual differences in exercise motivation are discussed.
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