The aim of the research was to analyze the possibility of using mobile laser scanning systems to acquire information for production and/or updating of a basic map and to propose a no-reference index of this accuracy assessment. Point clouds have been analyzed in terms of content of interpretation and geometric potential. For this purpose, the accuracy of point clouds with a georeference assigned to the base map objects was examined. In order to conduct reference measurements, a geodetic network was designed and also additional static laser scanning data has been used. The analysis of mobile laser scanning (MLS) data accuracy was conducted with the use of 395 check points. In the paper, application of the total Error of Position of the base-map Objects acquired with the use of MLS was proposed. Research results were related to reference total station measurements. The resulting error values indicate the possibility to use an MLS point cloud in order to accurately determine coordinates for individual objects for the purposes of standard surveying studies, e.g. for updating some elements of the base map content. Nevertheless, acquiring MLS point clouds with satisfying accuracy not always is possible, unless specific resolution condition is fulfilled. The paper presents results of accuracy evaluation in different classes of base-map elements and objects.
Neutralisation of the terrorist explosive devices is a risky task. Such tasks may be carried out by robots in order to protect human life. The article describes chosen design problems concerning the new neutralisation and assisting robot SMR-100 Expert. The robot was to be designed for the use in confined spaces, particularly inside the air-crafts, buses and rail cars. In order to achieve this ambitious plan, new advanced technological designing tools had to be applied. A number of interesting design issues were approached. The successful development of the prototype robot Expert in Poland resulted in the creation of the first intervention robot in the world able to perform all necessary anti-terrorist tasks inside the passenger planes.
The aim of this paper is to present an in-pipe modular robotic system that can navigate inaccessible industrial pipes in order to check their condition, locate leakages, and clean the ventilation systems. The aspects concerning the development of a lightweight and energy efficient modular robotic system are presented. The paper starts with a short introduction about modular inspection systems in the first chapter, followed by design aspects and finalizing with the test of the developed robotic system.
The paper addresses optimal control problem of mobile manipulators. Dynamic equations of those mechanisms are assumed herein to be uncertain. Moreover, unbounded disturbances act on the mobile manipulator whose end-effector tracks a desired (reference) trajectory given in a task (Cartesian) space. A computationally efficient class of two-stage cascaded (hierarchical) control algorithms based on both the transpose Jacobian matrix and transpose actuation matrix, has been proposed. The offered control laws involve two kinds of non-singular terminal sliding mode (TSM) manifolds, which were also introduced in the paper. The proposed class of cooperating sub-controllers is shown to be finite time stable by fulfilment of practically reasonable assumptions. The performance of the proposed control strategies is illustrated on an exemplary mobile manipulator whose end-effector tracks desired trajectory.
Basic gesture sensors can play a significant role as input units in mobile smart devices. However, they have to handle a wide variety of gestures while preserving the advantages of basic sensors. In this paper a user-determined approach to the design of a sparse optical gesture sensor is proposed. The statistical research on a study group of individuals includes the measurement of user-related parameters like the speed of a performed swipe (dynamic gesture) and the morphology of fingers. The obtained results, as well as other a priori requirements for an optical gesture sensor were further used in the design process. Several properties were examined using simulations or experimental verification. It was shown that the designed optical gesture sensor provides accurate localization of fingers, and recognizes a set of static and dynamic hand gestures using a relatively low level of power consumption.
Main topic of the paper is a problem of designing the input-output decoupling controllers for nonholonomic mobile manipulators. We propose a selection of output functions in much more general form than in [1,2]. Regularity conditions guaranteeing the existence of the input-output decoupling control law are presented. Theoretical considerations are illustrated with simulations for mobile manipulator consisting of RTR robotic arm mounted atop of a unicycle which moves in 3D-space.
Mobile devices have become an integral part of our life and provide dozens of useful services to their users. However, usability of mobile devices is hindered by battery lifetime. Energy conservation can extend battery lifetime, however, any energy management policy requires accurate prediction of energy consumption, which is impossible without reliable energy measurement and estimation methods and tools. We present an analysis of the energy measurement methodologies and describe the implementations of the internal (profiling) software (proprietary, custom) and external software-based (Java API, Sensor API, GSM AT) energy measurement methodologies. The methods are applied to measure energy consumption on a variety of mobile devices (laptop PC, PDA, smart phone). A case study of measuring energy consumption on a mobile computer using 3DMark06 benchmarking software is presented
The study presents the issue of kinematic discrepancy of hydrostatic drive systems of high mobility vehicles, and its impact on the presence of the unfavourable phenomenon of circulating power. Furthermore, it presents a theoretical discussion concerning the capacity of the compensation of kinematic discrepancy by a hydrostatic drive system on the basis of tests using static characteristics.
The authors describe the program undertaken at the Warsaw University of Technology (WUT), aimed at developing mobile aerodynamic laboratories to be used for investigation into aerodynamic properties of airfoils or lightweight propulsion systems - in natural scale and in natural atmosphere. The enterprise was named the EB-program, and has both: research and educational aspects; in all phases of the program (i.e. design, manufacturing and testing) the WUT students are involved. As the result of work, three mobile aerodynamic laboratories were build: EB-1 - which was tested on the car roof, EB-2 - unique flying laboratory based on the PW-6 glider, and EB-3 - a new generation of flying wind tunnel to be used on the AOS-71 glider, which currently is under preparation to the flight tests. The authors present in detail the measurement systems and procedures supported by the Lab View software.
In this paper we propose a sensor-based navigation method for navigation of wheeled mobile robot, based on the Kohonen self-organising map (SOM). We discuss a sensor-based approach to path design and control of wheeled mobile robot in an unknown 2-D environment with static obstacles. A strategy of reactive navigation is developed including two main behaviours: a reaching the middle of a collision-free space behaviour, and a goal-seeking behaviour. Each low-level behaviour has been designed at design stage and then fused to determine a proper actions acting on the environment at running stage. The combiner can fuse low-level behaviours so that the mobile robot can go for the goal position without colliding with obstacles one for the convex obstacles and one for the concave ones. The combiner is a softswitch, based on the idea of artificial potential fields, that chooses more then one action to be active with diRerent degrees at each time step. The output of the navigation level is fed into a neural tracking controller that takes into account the dynamics of the mobile robot. The purpose of the neural controller is to generate the commands for the servo-systems of the robot so it may choose its way to its goal autonomously, while reacting in real-time to unexpected events. Computer simulation has been conducted to illustrate the performance of the proposed solution by a series of experiments on the emulator of wheeled mobile robot Pioneer-2DX.
The growing number of mobile devices and the increasing popularity of multimedia services result in a new challenge of providing mobility in access networks. The paper describes experimental research on media (audio and video) streaming in a mobile IEEE 802.11 b/g/n environment realizing network-based mobility. It is an approach to mobility that requires little or no modification of the mobile terminal. Assessment of relevant parameters has been conducted in an IPv6 testbed. During the tests, both Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) parameters have been considered. Against the background of standard L3 and L2 handovers, an emerging mobility solution named Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6) has been examined. Its advantages (L3 connectivity maintenance) and disadvantages (packet loss during handover) are emphasized based on the obtained results. Moreover, a new solution for handover optimization has been proposed. A handoff influence upon audio/video generation and transfer imperfections has been studied and found to be an interesting direction of future work.
This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audio decoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. The decoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to keep the complexity low, most of the processing is performed in the parametric domain. This parametric processing includes pitch and tempo shifting, volume adjustment, selection of psychoacoustically relevant components for synthesis and stereo image creation. The decoder allows for good quality 44.1 kHz stereo audio streaming at 24 kbps. The synthesizer matches the audio quality of industry-standard sample-based synthesizers while using a twenty times smaller memory footprint soundbank. The presented decoder/synthesizer is designed for low-power mobile platforms and supports music streaming, ringtone synthesis, gaming and remixing applications.
One of the current challenges in transport is e-mobility, understood as electromobility, ecomobility and mobility economics. E-mobility is nowadays a key focus area of socio-technical change, in terms of attention from policy makers as well as from industry and the public. The societal challenges ahead, in particular climate change put increasing pressure on the current mobility system, due to its tremendous environmental impact. Furthermore e-mobility is seen as major economic opportunity for the automotive industry. In this context, based on the available literature and documents and practical solutions implemented already in cities and agglomerations, the paper discusses the fundamental challenges that cities are to face in the context of the current megatrends. This process will engage diff erent stakeholders in order to make this concept become a reality.
This paper presents a design of a tracked in-pipe inspection mobile robot with an adaptive drive positioning system. The robot is intended to operate in circular and rectangular pipes and ducts, oriented horizontally and vertically. The paper covers a design process of a virtual prototype, focusing on track adaptation to work environment. A mathematical description of a kinematic model of the robot is presented. Operation of the prototype in pipes with a cross-section greater than 210 mm is described. Laboratory tests that validate the design and enable determination of energy consumption of the robot are presented.
This paper makes a contribution to food research and studies of mobility through analyzing food exchange in a translocal context. Furthermore, by focusing on Muslim women’s practices in the North Caucasus it also contributes to gender studies of post-socialism, which, for the most part, are based on the ﬁeld material from the non-Muslim part of the Russian population. Anthropologists have viewed social changes through the lens of various food items or consumption patterns. I argue that adding a mobility aspect to the research centered on food can help us discover social changes and practices that may otherwise remain unnoticed. I will show that studying the dynamics of food circulation and human mobility may serve as a good starting point towards the broader study of societies. Thus, by taking people originating from the Shiri village in Daghestan as an example, I look into channels of food sharing to analyze the nature of reproduction of social relations within communities and the cultural entanglements created by the circulation of goods. Furthermore, the analysis of their vernacular practices reveals the existence of informal exchange networks, in particular the ones secured by and for women. Through these networks, food and favors are exchanged, and social bonds and feelings of obligation are created and preserved. Further analysis also reveals social changes connected with mountain abandonment, in particular the growing awareness of the weakening of tukhum (lineage) and village ties. These dynamics reﬂect recent changes in the Daghestani society that are connected with increased mobility and the processes of (re)islamization.
Middle Palaeolithic land exploitation strategies remain as yet an unexplored element in our understanding of Neanderthal behavioural patterns. Many different approaches to the problem were so far developed. Among others, biological, economic or environmental data concerning Neanderthals were considered as relevant. One of the focus points in such divagations is the issue of raw materials economy as undertaken by Neanderthals. The long-distance transport of knappable minerals (as a basis for the stone tools production) allows an insight into the economy and understanding of the size of land in use by Neanderthals group. Addressing this particular issue from the perspective of the Western Carpathian Mountains allows us to track the trails of mobility or trace possible contact zones between groups, and also to state, that at least in some circumstances Neanderthal groups were infiltrating and possibly crossing this highly elevated area on the S-N axis.
In order to meet global challenges, cities must be governed efficiently, be compact, and as a result more sustainable, socially coherent, strong and competitive at economic level. Initiatives taken in favour of urban mobility may help in shaping of the global society, putting the main focus on the quality of life, citizens› needs and the principle of sustainable development. These actions aim at focusing citizens› attention on the need to improve air quality, decrease congestion in city’s main streets, but most of all to invest in your own health and physical condition, which increases the level of citizens’ life conditions, and in turn provides the city with considerable economic benefits. However, is it quite a challenge to ensure a sustainable urban mobility pattern which requires a high level of stakeholders’ participation and establishing a detailed complex planning process. The aim of the paper is to present, based on the available literature and data sources and also survey research results, shaping life quality in the aspect of mobility in the context of current megatrends, taking as a case study the CIVITAS DYN@MO project implementation in the city of Gdynia.
According to The European Commission’s regulation numbers 842/2006 and 517/2014, refrigerants whose Global Warming Potential ratio is more than 150, have been prohibited in mobile air conditioning (MAC) since January 2017. Therefore, the commonly used R-134 gas has been banned. The search for a new refrigerant, which grants all the required criteria, has begun. In accordance with new European standards, the gas should have environmentally friendly properties and should not be noxious to human life while operating. In this paper, two alternative substances, which can substitute the banned R134a, have been compared. This is synthetic R1234yf, which belongs to the HFO group, and carbon dioxide, which exists in the natural environment. The chemical build, physical and thermodynamic properties have been described. Scientific articles, which present and compare the technical results of testing both refrigerants, have been discussed. Comparison results, tools used and research methodology have been described in these articles. Alternative gases have been analyzed for their environmental impact and have been checked on the toxic, flammable, impact on ozone depletion and global warming. The threats to human life due to the use of the new refrigerants have been reviewed. The thesis also comprises an economical comparison between the two gases. A short review and conclusions have been presented at the end of the article.
The paper presents the idea of a prosumer energy cloud as a new service dedicated to electricity prosumers. The implementation of the cloud should generate a number of benefits in the following areas: settlements between prosumer and electricity supplier, the development of distributed energy sources in microprocessors and the development of e-mobility. From the prosumer point of view, the proposed idea of a prosumer cloud of energy is dedicated to the virtual storage of energy excess generated in the micro-installation. Physical energy storage in the cloud means recording the volume of electricity introduced into the electricity system from the prosumer’s microprocessors. It is assumed that the energy equivalent to the volume registered in the prosumer cloud can be used at any time at any point in the network infrastructure of the National Power System. Any point of network infrastructure shall be understood as any locally located point of connection of an electricity consumer provided with access authorization. From the point of view of the power grid operators, the idea of a prosumer energy cloud is a conceptual proposition of a service dedicated to the new model of the power system functioning, taking future conditions concerning the significant development of prosumer energy and e-mobility into account. In this concept, electricity would be treated as a commodity only to partial physical storage and above all to trade. In this model a key aspect would be virtual energy storage, that is, the commercial provision by the cloud operator (trading company) of any use of the electricity portfolio by its suppliers. It should be stressed, however, that in the prosumer’s energy cloud functioning, a significant factor would be the cost of guarantees of the use of energy by prosumers at any time and point of connection to the network. This results in the need of taking the presence of certain market risks, both volumetric and cost incurred by clouds operator, which can be minimized by passing a portion of the accumulated volume of generated energy to the cloud operator into account. It should be emphasized that this article presents the first phase of the development of the concept of prosumer energy cloud. However, it is planned to be expanded by the following stages, which include the possibility of controlling and supervising the operation of prosumer installations such as: sources, receivers and physical energy stores, e.g. home energy storage or batteries installed in electric vehicles. Ultimately, it is assumed that the proposed prosumer energy cloud will be outside of the storage of energy (virtual and partly physical) and that aggregation of prosumer resources will create new possibilities for their use to provide a variety of regulatory services, including system ones.
The paper presents results of the field tests on membrane biogas enrichment performed with the application of mobile membrane installation (MMI) with the feed stream up to 10 Nm3/h. The mobile installation equipped with four hollow fibre modules with polyimide type membranes was tested at four different biogas plants. Two of them were using agricultural substrates. The third one was constructed at a municipal wastewater plant and sludge was fermented in a digester and finally in the fourth case biogas was extracted from municipal waste landfill site. Differences in the concentration of bio-methane in feed in all cases were observed and trace compounds were detected as well. High selectivity polyimide membranes, in proper module arrangements, can provide a product of high methane content in all cases. The content of other trace compounds, such as hydrogen sulphide, water vapour and oxygen on the product did not exceed the values stated by standard for a biogas as a vehicle fuel. The traces of hydrogen sulphide and water vapour penetrated faster to the waste stream enriched in carbon dioxide, which could lead to further purification of the product – methane being hold in the retentate (H2O > H2S > CO2 > O2 > CH4 > N2). In the investigated cases, when concentration of N2 was low and concentration of CH4 higher than 50%, it was possible to upgrade methane to concentration above 90% in a two-stage cascade. To performsimulation ofCH4 andCO2 permeation through polyimide membrane,MATLABwas used. Simulation program has included permeation gaseous mixture with methane contents as observed at field tests in the range of 50 and 60% vol. The mass transport process was estimated for a concurrent hollow fibre membrane module for given pressure and temperature conditions and different values of stage cut. The obtained results show good agreement with the experimental data. The highest degree of methane recovery was obtained with gas concentrating in a cascade with recycling of the retentate.
Utilization of drones is going to become predominated in cellular networks as aerial base stations in order to temporary cover areas where stationary base stations cannot serve the users. Detecting optimal location and efficient number of drone-Base Stations (DBSs) are the targets we tackle in this paper. Toward this goal, we first model the problem using mixed integer non-linear programming. The output of the proposed method is the number and the optimal location of DBSs in a two-dimension area, and the object is to maximize the number of covered users. In the second step, since the proposed method is not solvable using conventional methods, we use a proposed method to solve the optimization problem. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed method has achieved its goals.