Pest mites of the family Tetranychidae are commonly reported in several legumes. However, reports of their occurrence in lima beans are insipient, especially in Brazil. The objective of this research was to record the occurrence of mites in lima bean plants and to describe their damage in this Fabaceae. Tetranychus neocaledonicus André and Mononychellus planki McGregor were found in lima bean plants, Phaseolus lunatus (Fabaceae or Leguminosae). The lima bean plants, when infested by these mites, initially exhibit small whitish spots in the leaflets, which with increasing population density rapidly evolve into chlorotic patches, followed by silvering, and may dry out and fall due to their overfeeding. The extent of the damage caused to lima bean plants and the adaptability of the mite to warm and dry conditions indicate that T. neocaledonicus has greater potential as a lima bean pest than M. planki in northeastern Brazil. This is the first record of these mites associated with P. lunatus.
The mesostigmatid mite Vulgarogamasus immanis (Berlese, 1904) is reported in Svalbard for the first time. The gamasid mite community of Svalbard is amongst the best known of invertebrate groups of the archipelago due to recent revisions based on fresh sampling campaigns. Nonetheless, a hitherto unrecorded species of gamasid mite was recently found along the strandline in Barentsburg. This record brings the total gamasid mite inventory of Svalbard to 23 species. The current inventory of Svalbard is bedeviled with synonyms and misidentifications. Nevertheless, resolving these confusions and maintaining an accurate and updated species inventory is of prime importance in understanding the ecology of this region. Especially in a period of rapid environmental change.
The adverse effects of synthetic acaricides on humans, animals, non-target organisms and the ecosystem are serious problems. Thus, there is a new trend to use nanotechnology for developing new, natural, bio and safe acaricides for mite control in green-pest management. This is the first work for preparing a nanoformulation of rosemary essential oil (EO) and evaluating its effect against the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. GC/MS analysis of rosemary EO showed that 1,8 cineole (31.45%), borneol (11.07%), α-pinene (10.91%), D-limonene (9.19%), L-linalool (8.86%), D-camphor (7.32%), γ-terpinene (3.92%), linalyl acetate (3.37%), α-terpineol (3.32%), and p-cymene (1.82%) were the major components. After 6 min of sonication, a nanoemulsion of rosemary EO was formulated with a droplet size of 139.9 nm. The balance between oil (lyophilic) and surfactant (hydrophilic) was correlated with the droplet size and the stability of the nanoemulsion. Spray application of rosemary nanoemulsion showed high acaricidal activity against immature and adult two-spotted spider mites T. urticae with LC50 723.71 and 865.68 μg · ml−1 and the toxicity increased by 54.15 and 52.69% for immature and adult mites, respectively. There were no toxic effects or mortality of rats treated with rosemary nanoemulsion. High acaricidal activity, stability, and safety of rosemary nanoemulsion make this nanoformulation a possible green and nano-acaricidal product. Further studies under field conditions are necessary to study the acaricidal efficiency of rosemary nanoemulsion against two-spotted spider mites and the toxic effect on predacious mites.