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Abstract

The subject matter dealt with in this article fits into a broader discussion on sovereignty and patriotism, which has intensified since Poland’s accession to the European Union. It is also associated with the topical issue of patriotic education of children and adolescents, in which the Church engages along with the family and the school (e.g. as part of religion lessons, parochial catechesis, specialist pastoral work). When taking up the subject matter described in the title, the author first focused on whether now, in a changed historical context, speaking about patriotism and patriotic attitudes is still sensible and whether a Christian can (should) be a patriot. When seeking an answer to this question, a reference was made mainly to the Letter of the Polish Episcopate On Christian Patriotism, issued on the 200th anniversary of the first partition of Poland, and to the document of the Conference of the Polish Episcopate prepared by the Council for Social Matters, entitled The Christian Shape of Patriotism. It was against this background that an answer was sought to the question about patriotic content in homilies and catechesis. Homilies delivered by St. John Paul II during his pilgrimages to his homeland were used as a model in this regard. The basic assumptions of the religion teaching syllabus for schools and parochial catechesis, which refer at multiple points to patriotism as a value, emphasising the importance of developing an attitude of respect and love for one’s homeland and its cultural heritage, as well as a motivation to actively participate in social life, were also discussed.
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Abstract

The article is a part of materials regarding current problems of Polish science and higher education. It provides an in-depth analysis of the Act on degrees and academic titles as well as several other laws which introduce the so-called Ph.D. implementation in Poland. These laws were adopted by the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in April 2017. The author focuses on several problems, discussing them in separate chapters. The article also tries to predict the far-reaching results of the new rules. At the same time, the author proposes specific solutions that should be included in the future in the Act on degrees and academic titles, or in the Act of industrial property. They should eliminate the negative effects of conflicts between the provisions of various legal acts.
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Abstract

A draft of the changes to the Polish Academy of Sciences is presented, which will increase its prestige and make better use of the scientific potential of the members of the Academy and the employees of its institutes. The proposed regulations will allow for a comprehensive activation of potential of both institutes and corporate members. The aim of reform is to make the PAS an attractive scientific institution with a focus on the pursuit of fundamental research at the highest level, and to recognize that understanding and clarification of the problem must precede possible applications.
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Abstract

According to the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education and Polish Central Statistical Office the number of students systematically decreases since 2015. This demographic change was a reason to examine students motivation for undertaking their studies in order to improve educational program and to encourage students to peruse higher education. By approaching the subject of “Motivations for Undertaking Special Education Studies in The Opinion of Students at Pedagogical University of Cracow”, the answers were sought to the three following questions: What were the main reasons for choosing studies at Pedagogical University of Cracow? What motivators played a key role for students while selecting field of studies? What student’s personality traits did mainly influence their choice? Research material was collected basing on a self-designed questionnaire. The group of first-year 54 students year were tested, in which 39% didn’t know which specialization they would choose after a one year. The article’s conclusions present key factors motivating students for undertaking Special Education Studies and explain how personality traits influenced their choice.
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