The main optimized objects in underground mines include: stope layout, access layout and production scheduling. It is common to optimize each component sequentially, where optimal results from one phase are regarded as the input data for the next phase. Numerous methods have been developed and implemented to achieve the optimal solution for each component. In fact, the interaction between different phases is ignored in the tradition optimization models which only get the suboptimal solution compared to the integrated optimization model. This paper proposes a simultaneous integrated optimization model to optimize the three components at the same time. The model not only optimizes the mining layout to maximize the Net Present Value (NPV), but also considers the extension sequence of stope extraction and access excavation. The production capacity and ore quality requirement are also taken into account to keep the mining process stable in all mine life. The model is validated to a gold deposit in China. A two-dimensional block model is built to do the resource estimation due to the clear boundary of the hanging wall and footwall. The thickness and accumulation of each block is estimated by Ordinary Kriging (OK). In addition, the conditional simulation method is utilized to generate a series of orebodies with equal possibility. The optimal solution of optimization model is carried out on each simulated orebody to evaluate the influence of geological uncertainty on the optimal mining design and production scheduling. The risk of grade uncertainty is quantified by the possibility of obtaining the expected NPV. The results indicate that the optimization model has the ability to produce an optimal solution that has a good performance under the uncertainty of grade variability.
Planning in a mining enterprise is a complex and multifaceted action. For this reason, it is necessary to provide its proper organisation and adjust it to the specific conditions of conducting underground mining extraction. The prepared plans must make up a cohesive internal system, unambiguously determining the manner, range and safety requirements of the conducted extraction. In the most general manner, the various types of plans developed by organisational units of mining enterprises can be divided based on the timeframe, type, scope and object of planning. These are strategic plans, tactical plans and subject-based plans. The aim of the article is to present the issue of production planning in a mining enterprise and for the preparation of such a plan, first and foremost, information about, among other things, applicable legal regulations, market conditions and the specificity of a mining enterprise are necessary. Underground extraction of black coal deposits must be conducted while respecting the rules of sustainable development which satisfies current needs, without compromising the ability to satisfy the needs of future generations. Due to the specific nature of mining production, manifested, among other things, by such features as the diversity of conditions for conducting the activity, resulting from the changing geological-mining conditions of the deposit, low flexibility of the production process, associated with the impossibility to conduct alternative production and a very long-lasting investment process, planning the course and magnitude of production in a mining enterprise must proceed with the highest possible diligence. One should take into account a wide range of presented environmental, organisational and technical conditions, deciding about the safety and correctness of the course of the assumed production activities. However, in order to make them economically feasible and produce satisfying results in that regard, it is also necessary to analyse them carefully with respect to financial outcomes
This paper presents a synthesis of research in the field of social activity in development of urban public spaces. Interest in social participation in which many groups sees a remedy to the problems of the city - including spatial chaos - has many causes. One of them is the lack of trust in the social side to the profession of architecture. The article indicates the possible cause of this state for which it was flawed legislation and the planning system, which in practice is not conducive to the formation of order, harmony and beauty, but facilitate the implementation of the narrow groups of interests, bringing the rank of designer as creator of the role of the investor's decision executor.
The first post-war, comprehensive Gdynia Downtown Plan was at the same time one of the first spatial development plans in Poland defining the directions of transformation of multifunctional downtown structures in the new system and legal realities. It was the Plan of the Polish Breakthrough related to the realities of the downtown area of Gdynia. The study area included the Gdynia Valley limited by the hills of Kamienna Góra, Redłowo and Chylońskie Forests with the development of a complete pre-war city developing in accordance with the fi rst plan of Adam Kuncewicz from 1925 in the zone of 3 km, counted from the center of the inner port. The aim of the plan was to look for centralizing potential in the fi eld of research. This concept was treated as a power degree related to the then existing state, as well as the possibility of further development or transformation.
The basic resource of urban planning is space, which as a result of transformation has a direct impact on socio-economic development and quality of life. The author’s purpose was to define planning solutions for urban spatial policy, which can raise the quality of living, especially in the residential environment. In connection with the above, the literature of the subject was analysed and examples of good spatial policy and urban development in the living environment were shown. Particular attention was paid to the planning solutions in Paris and Vienna, as well as to the examples of the new living environment creation in some Scandinavian cities.
The article presents basic changes introduced in the first edition of the governmental Urban Planning and Building Code. The changes regard spatial development, especially planning and permit documents, and competences of the governmental bodies in accepting, legislating and issuing such documents. In this respect, the article points out important regulations for the mining industry, in particular for deposit protection and the initiation of mining projects. In certain cases, critical opinions of some of the governmental institutions are mentioned. In a new document regarding the “Spatial Development Study of a Community”, the draft of the Code orders a division of the community into functional zones. Therefore a mining and extractive industry could be delimited as a functional zone. The Code also specifies that while delimiting a new urbanization area, the documented mining deposits areas should be avoided. In relation to the local spatial plan, the Code establishes the following: in documented strategic mining deposit zones the initiation of non-public purpose investments can only be carried out according to the urban spatial plan. This project also orders that only the local spatial plan can allow for the localization of “establishments that carry a risk of serious industrial breakdown” and “investments that can seriously impact the environment”. The Code also introduces another innovation: the possibility of issuing the local spatial plan with an integrated evaluation on the environmental impact. The “investment permits” are intended to replace both the previous building permits and previous decisions on the conditions of development of the areas not covered in the local spatial plans. The investment permits referring to mining establishments will be issued by the mining administration authorities. The main adverse change for mining is that the exploration of mining deposits owned by the State Treasury loses its previous status of public purposes. The article also indicates that some of the described regulations might be changed during the further legislation process.
The main purpose of this article is to present facts related to the history of Port Praski located on the right bank of the Vistula river in Warsaw, which is currently being built. The subject of the consideration is the area and development of the former Port Praski, which project and the fi rst works began after the First World War. It’s spatial and functional connections with the downtown area and surroundings are also key issue. The article presents plans, concepts, projects and investments, furthermore theirs level of implementation. Signifi cant eff ort was made to answer the research questions concerning social expectations regarding the function and the direction of Port Praski development. In the final part of the article was made a comparison of existing revitalization works in Port Praski with HafenCity – the district of Hamburg, where the revitalization project has been already implemented for 20 years. However, comparative analysis revealed several signifi cant differences, allowed to conclude that Polish model of revitalization is only a partially identical with the approach applied in Western Europe.
The subject discussed in this paper is the evolution of the ideas of organic development in urban planning, focused on the waterfront areas. The paper also aims to analyze and interpret current trends in urban water waterfront planning, which are infl uenced by the contemporary ideas related to environmental issues, landscape planning, new technologies in the fi eld of building design and civil- and hydroengineering or application of the renewable energy sources.
The article presents how multi-layered urban lighting projects fit into the programs of integrated activities to improve the living conditions of the local community, the surrounding space, and its economic relations. The role of the electric lighting in revealing the night image of the city, its promotion and public spaces transformations offering new impressions to city residents is growing thanks to the use of the SSL technology. The authors focus on a role of outdoor lighting projects in urban regeneration within the selected urban areas. The paper describes how conscious shaping of lighting by analysing the goals and stages of the project can contribute to the improvement of quality in the processes of renewal of degraded urban areas.
The Hamburg’s policy, as part of the ‘Leap over the Elbe River’ strategy, is an example of the current direction of the city’s renewal, falling beyond classical revitalization. Improvement of quality and refinement of urban structures require an unconventional approach in the problem areas, both in the phase of setting the target standards and at the stage of solution implementation. The districts located in the fork of the Elbe river, Hamburg’s left-bank post-habor areas, were given the IBA (International Building Exhibition) Hamburg status in 2006-13. The area of Wilhelmsburg has become the place of implementing an innovative urban strategy, under the slogan of a renewable city, which has prepared the Island for a modern policy of compact city model development. The conclusions from the analysis of the renewal process that had been carried out within the framework of the IBA Hamburg, described in this article, have been summarized with regard to the Polish conditions represented by the example of the revitalization process in the Nowy Port district in Gdańsk.
The aim of the article is to present the problem of revitalization of marketplaces in the context of the challenges they face in contemporary socio-economic conditions. This issue was developed based on desk research and inquiry conducted on a representative marketplace in Gdańsk Oliwa. They served to formulate guidelines for the implementation project aimed at improving the image and economic condition of traditional marketplaces in Poland. Despite significant importance for the local economy, traditional marketplaces are not able to compete with shopping malls and shopping centers, as a result of which they become unsustainable. The ongoing degradation of marketplace areas reduce their attractiveness and role they play in public spaces network. The authors of the project recognize that the solution to the issue of marginalization of traditional marketplaces is to strengthen their image in both physical and media realms. One of the proposed solutions is institutional support for marketplaces by non-governmental organizations involved in the revitalization and aestheticisation of urban areas.
In the paper author discusses problems related to the leading role of architectural structures, as a part of the creating process within contemporary urban space. Architectural objects establish a continuous dialogue not only with their surrounding space, but also between each other. In this relation, the first plan comes with two factors, determining all spatial and functional solutions: the place in which a given project is localized and the time in which the urban designer came to the architect to create his plan. Based on the analysis of own projects and urban and architectural realizations, the author proves that the architectural dialogue in urban space must be respected in the context of the place and the time, but also in the creators moral responsibility. This responsibility is defined by consequences of design decisions not only for the urban space itself, but above all, for people and their coexistence with the space. For designers it reveals a necessity to comply principles of ethics and professing the value system in order to taking care of the urban space not only three-dimensional, but also “existential”.
The article attempts a comparison of two harbor districts, in Gdansk and in Hamburg. In 2013, a multiannual program - IBA Hamburg (International Building Exhibition) - was completed. The IBA, initiated with the a concept of the Leap over the Elbe River, part of the Growing City development agenda, addressed the problem of restructuring the port-nearby zones in Harburg and Wilhelmsburg, which have been recognised as areas of high potential in metropolitan development. The concept of metrozones (intra-peripheries or intra border zones), similarly to the term in-between City (German: Zwischenstadt), describes the current problems associated with the strive for creation of an original, but efficient and compact European city. Restructuring of the harbor districts enables new development of the urbanized, but never planned as urban space, areas. Shaped in accordance with the technological capabilities and with the regulation standards and norms of the second half of the 20th century, nowadays the areas form the resultative landscape, burdened with the image of an unfriendly or even dangerous zones. In the era of high technology, metrozones are becoming valuable intra-city developmental areas, opened to alternative urban programs, avoiding the homogenising global trends. In connection with the above, the article describes the situation of the area organized around Nowy Port in Gdansk.
The analysis of provisions of Local Spatial Management Plans and selected cases of practical implementation of such provisions showed, that the provisions of spatial law practically stay without any relation to rules of urban composition and spatial order. The research was limited to analysis of urban composition, without considering all the conditions for planning process and its results. The town planning is treated in this article as planned space resulted from clear urban concept based on general urban composition rules. Town planning does not refer in this case to spatial chaos which can be a result of implementation of Local Spatial Management Plan.
The book focuses on the issue of nature protection in urban areas. The subject matter of the research was the formal and legal conditions of protected areas in cities. The analysis regarded Polish and global solutions in the scope of the nature protection categories in urban areas, objectives of creating urban protected areas and instruments for fulfi lling the aims of protection in the spatial aspect. The research on globally applied solutions in the scope of nature protection was based on the analysis of source literature and legal acts on nature conservation in cities situated in various countries. As a result, four major types of urban protected areas were distinguished in 80 different cities. The research enabled formulating major characteristics of urban protected areas. Those were, in particular: the integrated approach to the protection of natural and cultural resources and equal treatment of the natural and social objectives of protection. This was the basis for a critical analysis of domestic solutions in the subject matter. The research on formal and legal conditions for the functioning of protected areas in Polish cities was conducted in the administrative borders of voivodeship capitals. The research included 18 cities in total. The analysis concerned basic documents related to the widely understood management of protected areas, including, in particular: legal acts establishing individual protected areas and protected areas management plans, as well as the studies of conditions and directions for the spatial development of communes and local spatial development plans. The research work regarded spatial forms of nature protection, including: national parks, natural reserves, regional parks, protected landscape areas, Natura 2000 areas, ecological sites, documentation sites and nature-landscape complexes. The research included 229 protected areas in total. For the abovementioned protected areas, the following aspects were analyzed: subject matter and objectives of their protection, premises for creating their functional and spatial infrastructure and methods for their development, as well as the scope of provisions in urban spatial planning documents in the abovementioned respect. The research enabled identifying the key problems in the functioning of protected areas in Polish cities, including: • small stability of regulations on nature protection and consequential lack of continuity in the protection of naturally valuable areas, • noticeable tendency to loosen the regulations in the subjected scope, which leads to marginalizing the issues of nature protection while planning urban development. • no coordination of actions performed by various stakeholders in regard to the protected areas, • failure to adjust nature protection objectives to conditions resulting from the location in urban areas, • lack of efficient tools to fulfi ll the nature protection objectives in the spatial aspect. Based on the identifi ed models of environmental protection in urban areas, premises were formulated with regard to the new model for environmental protection in Polish cities. Three scenarios were proposed with regard to potential changes: modification-oriented, reorganization-oriented and radical. The modification-oriented scenario includes: • adding the social aspect to the objectives of nature protection in cities, • extending the scope of the nature conservation act of new nature protection categories appropriate for urban areas, • increasing the importance of the study of conditions and directions for the spatial development and protection plans with regard to the planning permission. Reorganization-oriented scenario provides for: • verifying the objectives of nature protection, • introducing the obligation to prepare management plans for all protected areas in cities, • introducing the obligation to update and prepare development plans for areas were nature conservation areas were established. The radical scenario includes: • introducing new categories of nature protection in urban areas, including categories that ensure preserving and shaping the connectivity of protected area, • exposing ecosystem services as the major motif of nature protection in cities, • introducing new instruments for managing protected areas in cities. Applying one of the abovementioned scenarios may signifi cantly improve the efficiency of natural protection in cities. It may also contribute to introducing a more innovative model for urban nature protection. Each scenarios will entail the implementation of quite significant legislative changes, either in the scope of nature protection and spatial planning.
This article reflects on the results the use and eff ectiveness of design coding as urban design / development tool, focusing on the roles of and the relationships between the different actors playing parts in the in the design coding process: the administration, the investors, the designers, the politics and the community. It reveals the gap in professional circles that impacts the development process, which, deepened by the continuous battle between the creative, the market-driven and the regulatory modes praxis. The article is polemical in that it points to the three main parties of this collective process, referring to is as the creative, market and regulatory tyranny. The author proposes that design coding, if used correctly, could be an effective tool regulating the essentials of urbanism, leaving room for creativity and enhanced market value. Design coding as such results in improvement of the quality of both urbans space and housing architecture.
During the 1920s and 1930s Gdynia transformed from a small fishing village into a dynamically developing city through the construction in its vicinity of the largest seaport of interwar Poland. The city’s first expansion plan (1926, Adam Kuncewicz, Roman Feliński), designed for approximately 100 000 inhabitants, had to be revised already within a few years because development of the port has proved to be faster and the terrain requirements of the port substantially greater than originally predicted. In effect grounds originally planned for general city functions were yielded to the rapidly developing port. It was not until 2003 when the port boundaries shifted significantly as a result of restrictions and changes in the nature of port activity. These changes freed around 53 ha of post-harbour sites for new development, attractively located in the immediate vicinity of the existing city centre and waterfront. In 2015 the port boundaries shifted again adding 3 ha more of post-harbour sites. The changes also spurred investment in the north of downtown Gdynia – in accordance with the intentions of first city planners. Ideas how to make good use of post-harbour areas have been invented and evolved since 1990s. The concept which is currently under development was prepared in 2008 by the City Planning Offi ce of Gdynia. Since 2010 analyses and studies of future development have been conducted using 3D model. The concept is continuously updated and new details are added based on projects obtained through architectural competitions. Since 2015 development areas of the northern part of the city center were rebranded as Gdynia Sea City. In accordance with this concept Gdynia Sea City will be the modern city centre with areas designed for leisure, relaxation and business and will be inhabited by more than 10 thousand people. The area’s new grid is a continuation of the urban grid of historical downtown Gdynia and draws upon unrealized city plans of the interwar period. The scale of new buildings in the area is reminiscent of the historical buildings in the area. Groups of higher buildings are allowed outside of a protected area of the historic center, in areas selected through view and cityscape analysis. The residential and commercial complex Sea Towers together with two other newly constructed tall buildings is currently the dominant in this area. Several new development complexes are under construction. Planning concepts assume public availability of quays around the port basins and maintaining spacious openings towards the sea. Construction of marinas is expected using part of the docks and the ability to expand and reduce existing wharves, movement of pedestrians and cyclists between Fishermen Pier and South Pier will be facilitated through the construction of a bridge or a ferry connection. The planned enlargement into the post-harbour areas will double the current potential of Gdynia downtown, and enlarge the scope of representative areas and change the panorama from the historic city center and from the sea. Attractive downtown sites can provide an answer to the issue of uncontrolled urban spill into peripheral areas of adjacent municipalities.
Marine governance is an essential way of achieving the objectives of sustainable development. It ought to be understood as the process of planning, as well as decision-making and management at the national and regional levels taking into account the global ocean as an ecological unity. The process of decision-making is closely interrelated with the regional and transnational cross-border cooperation. The adoption of the EU Directive establishing a framework for maritime spatial planning (hereinafter: MSP Directive) plays an important role in developing of marine spatial planning in Europe by promoting MSP instruments. MSP Directive requires all coastal EU Member States to prepare cross-sectoral maritime spatial plans by 2021. The development of spatial plans for Polish marine areas was started in 2013. The MSP legal bases are included in the Marine Areas of the Republic of Poland and Maritime Administration Act of 1991 amended in 2015 and its implementing regulations.
In the era of transition to a low-carbon economy, optimal use of the developmental resources within urban regions expresses the need to limit suburbanization and increase the energy efficiency. Solutions are sought as an alternative for the suburban housing estates embodying the image high-quality life in the American Dream style. Aspects of the urban innovation, serving the public sector as a tool for improvement of the quality in residential environment, are considered in the article. Selected examples (mainly German) are described with reference to 1) the changes in the standards of housing development, 2) large-scale renewal programs for residential areas, 3) development and dissemination of urban design (the technique). The interaction between scientific research and the implementation sphere, remaining in the hands of local governments, is important here. Synergy, at a local level, is of key importance in at least four aspects in urban development: 1) solving complex, atypical problems, 2) the public sector being a strong (independent) partner, 3) adaptation of foreign concepts, from other planning systems/cultures and morphologically different urban structures, 4) strengthening the position in relations with the EU.
The article undertakes quastion of urban design in a context of urban sprawl linking it to the German debate on suburbanisation, conducted under the slogan of Zwischenstadt – a concept created by Th. Sieverts in 1997. The Ladenburger Kolleg „Zwischenstadt” (LKZ) developed 2002-2006 the interdisciplinary research titled: „Amidst the Edge: Zwischenstadt – towards the qualification of the urbanised landscape” The spatial effects of the dispersion processes were considered to be the manifestation of the creation of a new model of the city. The traditional image of urbanism does not fit its logic. Zwischenstadt (in-beetwen-city) recognized as a phase of the urbanization process, uncoordinated by any imposed urban vision, requires a innovative urban design leitmotives. This new planning tool is necessary to obtain the parameters needed to strengthen internal socio-economic development capabilities. The concept of the efficiency of urban design covered the issue of the character of a city›s image. The morphological studies on a megalopolis structure by Frankfurt a. Main, made a creative use of the Lynch research on the image of the city. Their main goal was to understand the characteristics of the dispersion meant as an urbanized landscape and to determine its susceptibility to the process of improving spatial quality – recognition of the endogenous potentials of generating a Zwischenstadt image.
The article refers to the urban sprawl in Poland. Its objectives are: (1) analysis of relations between negative eff ects, (2) presentation negative effects on transport and energy consumption and on spatial order, (3) analysis of ways of counteracting negative processes including conditions (especially restrictions) on the use of this ways and their effectiveness. The methods used were: observation, literature analysis and logical analysis. Driving forces are heading towards further suburbanization, stopping of which is considered impossible. Orientation of the processes more closely to spatial order is very difficult. There are proper and legal solutions for this, but there are barriers to their use, such as: the lack of awareness and motivation of local authorities and the political conditions that discourage more restrictive regulation.
The article discusses the possibility of using the living lab model as tool catalyzing the participatory planning in revitalization process. To create more user-centered environment helps as well for better implementation of the smart city formula. Against the background of foreign-practice examples (USA, Germany), reference was made to the Polish experience gained by the Author being leader of the cooperation between research team at the Gdańsk University of Technology (KUiPR WAPG) and the Gdańsk Foundation of Social Innovation (GFIS) – a non-government organization acting as a facilitator of local community in one of the disadvantage Gdańsk districts Orunia – Św. Wojciech. The cooperation, going beyond the existing academic convention of relations with local neighborhood activists can be described as research on revitalization, in an informal revitalization model of the living lab (R_LLO). The research comprise a number of projects carried out in 2010-2018 which has helped to develop new forms of participatory planning such as urban mentoring and community planning academy.
The aim of the presented work is to prove that construction of large sports facilities in the urban space, can generate positive changes and revitalization of degraded areas. On the basis of comparative analysis of cases in which such activities took place, it can be concluded that locating these facilities in heavily degraded urban areas is one of the most eff ective methods of large-scale revitalization. This is mainly visible in post-industrial areas, which are usually well linked to canals, rivers and other waterways or reservoirs. The vast spaces around sports facilities create favorable conditions for additional recreational functions, such as parks and green areas, which in connection with water become a very attractive place for the residents of the city. Increasing interest in the area leads to new investments such as housing estates and gradual development of a multi-functional urban structure. One of the most important factors leading to this type of transformation is the modernization of the communication infrastructure which enables connection between revitalized areas and the rest of the city. A well-planned program of newly emerging sports facilities is also an extremely important factor. As research shows, large multifunctional sports and entertainment facilities, can function as a new kind of public space in the city. This leads not only to the establishment of completely new social relations, but also to the creation of jobs and the general improvement of the broadly understood image of the district.
The article highlights the issues of the quality of the newly developed residential areas in Stockholm, in the times of one of the most development intense times in the history of the city. The city of Stockholm has a population of ca. one million residents today and is one of the fastest growing cities in Europe. The high increase in population numbers, high birth rate and strong economy have been the main factors contributing to the rapid city growth. The urgent need for new houses has been addressed by Stockholm’s politicians with an ambitious housing programme. The housing shortage together with the city´s booming economy and actively applied planning policies have created challenges for the decision makers and for the city planners. Most of Stockholm´s new residential areas are being planned outside the city centre which requires a revised approach to the character of the planned spaces and to their density. However, the issues of the quality of the currently planned and built areas are being raised more and more often. Not only the architectural quality has been discussed, but also the scale, structure typologies, the quality of the functional and spatial programmes and that of public spaces. A planning model that has been applied in Stockholm for several years is based on a close co-operation between the city´s planning administration bodies and private investors. A critical element of this kind of a planning model is a strong vision for the city´s future development. The city’s planning administration bodies assure an applicable guidance throughout the planning process. Analysis and conclusions presented in the article are based on practice at planning and administration bodies in Stockholm and in the region of Stockholm in the years 2005-2018.
Kadıköy is a central district of Istanbul and a public transportation hub located on the shores of the Marmara Sea. It has been highly affected by recent developments in Istanbul. The triggers of change in Kadıköy are both planned (developments in transportation facilities and redevelopment of old buildings) and unplanned (i.e. proliferating cafes, bars, and cultural facilities). It is also affected by metropolitan scale dynamics (changes in Beyoğlu, the culture and entertainment center of Istanbul). These changes in Kadıköy have inevitable eff ects on the inhabitants and users. This article discusses the positive and negative aspects of both planned and unplanned development on public life and spaces in Kadıköy. Vitality of public spaces seems increased. The main changes are increasing population and building densities, changes in public space usage, and a proliferation of cultural facilities led by recently opened theatre halls.