According to metrological guidelines and specific legal requirements, every smart electronic electricity meter has to be constantly verified after pre-defined regular time intervals. The problem is that in most cases these pre-defined time intervals are based on some previous experience or empirical knowledge and rarely on scientifically sound data. Since the verification itself is a costly procedure it would be advantageous to put more effort into defining the required verification periods. Therefore, a fixed verification interval, recommended by various internal documents, standardised evaluation procedures and national legislation, could be technically and scientifically more justified and consequently more appropriate and trustworthy for the end user. This paper describes an experiment to determine the effect of alternating temperature and humidity and constant high current on a smart electronic electricity meter’s measurement accuracy. Based on an analysis of these effects it is proposed that the current fixed verification interval could be revised, taking into account also different climatic influence. The findings of this work could influence a new standardized procedure in respect of a meter’s verification interval.
The paper presents the application of liquid crystal thermography for temperature determination and visualisation of two phase flow images on the studied surface. Properties and applications of thermochromic liquid crystals are discussed. Liquid crystals were applied for two-dimensional detection of the temperature of the heating foil forming one of the surfaces of the minichannel along which the cooling liquid flowed. The heat flux supplied to the heating surface was altered in the investigation and it was accompanied by a change in the color distribution on the surface. The accuracy of temperature measurements on the surface with liquid crystal thermography is estimated. The method of visualisation of two-phase flow structures is described. The analysis of monochrome images of flow structures was employed to calculate the void fraction for some cross-sections. The flow structure photos were processed using Corel graphics software and binarized. The analysis of phase volumes employed Techsystem Globe software. The measurement error of void fraction is estimated.
The paper relates to the problem of adaptation of V-block methods to waviness measurements of cylindrical surfaces. It presents the fundamentals of V-block methods and the principle of their application. The V-block methods can be successfully used to measure the roundness and waviness deviations of large cylinders used in paper industry, shipping industry, or in metallurgy. The concept of adaptation of the V-block method to waviness measurements of cylindrical surfaces was verified using computer simulations and experimental work. The computer simulation was carried out in order to check whether the proposed mathematical model and V-block method parameters are correct. Based on the simulation results, a model of measuring device ROL-2 for V-block waviness measurements was developed. Next, experimental research was carried out consisting in evaluation of waviness deviation, initially using a standard non-reference measuring device, and then using the tested device based on the V-block method. Finally, accuracy of the V-block experimental method was calculated.
This paper presents a low-cost and smart measurement system to acquire and analyze mechanical motion parameters. The measurement system integrates several measuring nodes that include one or more triaxial accelerometers, a temperature sensor, a data acquisition unit and a wireless communication unit. Particular attention was dedicated to measurement system accuracy and compensation of measurement errors caused by power supply voltage variations, by temperature variations and by accelerometers’ misalignments. Mathematical relationships for error compensation were derived and software routines for measurement system configuration, data acquisition, data processing, and self-testing purposes were developed. The paper includes several simulation and experimental results obtained from an assembled prototype based on a crank-piston mechanism
Power systems that are highly loaded, especially by a stochastic supply of renewables and the presence of storages, require dynamic measurements for their optimal control. Phasor measurement units (PMUs) can be used to capture electrical parameters of a power system. Standards on the PMU dynamic performance have been modified to incorporate their new dynamic mode of operation. This paper examines the PMU dynamic performance and proposes essential algorithms for measurement accuracy verification. Measurements of dynamic input signals, which vary in amplitude or frequency, were taken during automated tests of two PMUs. The test results are presented and expounded with further recommendation for the performance requirements. This paper also presents and examines applied testing procedures with relevance to the specifications of the IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor C37.118.1™-2011 and its amendment C37.118.1a™-2014.
This paper focuses on the radio direction finding (DF) in multipath environments. Based on the measurement results presented in the open literature, the authors analyse the influence of environment transmission properties on the spread of the signal reception angle. Parameters that define these properties are rms delay and angle spreads. For these parameters, the mutual relationship is determined. This relationship is the basis for assessment of the required number of bearings that minimize the influence of the environment on the accuracy of DF procedure. In the presented analysis, the statistical properties of the signal reception angle are approximated by the normal distribution. The number of bearings versus the rms delay spread is presented as the main objective of this paper. In addition, a methodology of the bearings’ spatial averaging that provides better estimation of the reception angle is shown.
Both the growing number of dispersed generation plants and storage systems and the new roles and functions on the demand side (e.g. demand side management) are making the operation (monitoring and control) of electrical grids more complex, especially in distribution. This paper demonstrates how to integrate phasor measurements so that state estimation in a distribution grid profits optimally from the high accuracy of PMUs. Different measurement configurations consisting of conventional and synchronous mea- surement units, each with different fault tolerances for the quality of the calculated system state achieved, are analyzed and compared. Weighted least squares (WLS) algorithms for conventional, linear and hybrid state estimation provide the mathematical method used in this paper. A case study of an 18-bus test grid with real measured PMU data from a 110 kV distribution grid demonstrates the improving of the system’s state variable’s quality by using synchrophasors. The increased requirements, which are the prerequisite for the use of PMUs in the distribution grid, are identified by extensively analyzing the inaccuracy of measurement and subsequently employed to weight the measured quantities.