Matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP2 and MMP9) are proteolytic enzymes involved with extracellular matrix degradation. They play a role in tumor invasion and metastases. Be- cause of their ability to degrade signaling molecules presented in extracellular matrix, MMPs contribute to tumor proliferation and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression of MMP2 (latent and both active and latent forms) and MMP9 (active, latent, active and latent forms) in different subtypes of canine lymphomas and their relationship with proliferative (mi- totic index and percentage of Ki67-positive cells) and apoptotic (apoptotic index) markers. Ex- pression of MMPs was assessed immunohistochemically using an immunoreactive score system. Expression of both MMPs was found in all 20 examined lymphomas belonging to six subtypes. Most cases showed a moderate level of all analyzed forms of MMP2 and MMP9. High expres- sion of MMPs was found in single cases. Except for a positive correlation between the active form of MMP9 and the mitotic index for all lymphoma cases, no other correlations between any remaining forms of MMPs and neither proliferative nor apoptotic markers were found, irrespec- tive of whether the analysis encompassed all cases or the most numerous lymphoma subtypes i.e. centroblastic and Burkitt-like. Our results were not able to clearly confirm the influence of MMPs on the proliferation and apoptotic activity of canine lymphoma cells. However, further studies examining MMPs activity by zymography, expression of their inhibitors and other factors in- volved in activation of cell proliferation and apoptosis inhibition are needed to clarify the role of MMPs, especially the active form of MMP9, in the behavior of canine lymphoma cells.
Edible snails are kept in farms in many countries worldwide. As farm animals, they are an object of interest of veterinary studies and applied biology. There is a large demand for tests which would help identify their health and well-being. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of determining the concentration of urea in hemolymph as a marker of health of the Lissachatina fulica and Cornu aspersum edible snails. The observation covered snails from four farms marked from A to D, in which numerous deaths (farm A) and decreased body weight gain (farms B and C) were observed. In experimental farm D we observed a group of snails subjected to stress and a control group maintained in correct conditions. High concentrations of urea were found in the hemolymph of all farm animals from farms A, B and C, as well as in those subjected to food deprivation in farm D (on average from 96 mg/dl in farm D to 320 mg/dl in farm A). On the other hand, in controls from group D, the concentration of the parameter in question was much lower (< 2.0 mg/dl). The results obtained indicate that the urea concentration is a non-specific marker of pathological conditions in snails, and that the continuous monitoring of this parameter makes it possible to demonstrate irregularities in farming and introduce appro- priate and early measures to eliminate such disturbances.
Rare and endemic plant species represent important components of plant biodiversity which require protection to ensure their sustainable conservation. Cerastium banaticum (Rochel) Heuff. is such an endemic and rare species from Romania, for which the genetic variability of two natural populations was studied by SSR markers. Shannon’s information index revealed low levels of genetic diversity in both populations (I = 0.296). As the first attempt in a conservation program a reproducible micropropagation protocol was established starting from seeds, followed by multiplication, rooting, and ex vitro acclimatization. Among the various plant growth regulators tested the highest multiplication coefficient was achieved on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 6-furfurylaminopurine (K) and 1 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). On this PGRs concentration a number of 26.6 shoots/individual explant with a mean length of 7.9 cm for new generated shoots was registered. The highest number of roots/individual initiated shoot was 2.6 and it was recorded on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 2-isopentyl-adenine (2iP) and 0.1 mg L-1 NAA. The outdoor acclimatization was successfully performed in a specially designed rocky area in the ‘Alexandru Borza’ Botanical Garden, Cluj-Napoca (Romania).
Barley scald, caused by Rhynchosporium commune is one of the most prevalent diseases in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) worldwide. The primary loss from scald is reduced yield, which can exceed 25% in dry areas. In our earlier studies, we developed a low-resolution linkage map for recombinant inbred lines of the cross Tadmor/WI2291. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for scald were localized on chromosomes 2H and 3H flanked by Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers HVM54 and Bmac0093b on 2H and HVLTPP8, HVM62 and Bmag0006 on 3H. These chromosome 3H markers were found to be located close to the Rrs1 − R. commune resistance gene(s) on chromosome 3H. In this study, 10 homozygous resistant and 10 homozygous susceptible plants each from the F7 population of Tadmor/ Sel160, a panel of 23 barley varieties used routinely in the International Centre for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) breeding program and three populations were used for scald resistance screening using 25 DNA markers that are located very close to scald resistance gene(s) on barley chromosomes. Only five of those markers clearly discriminated co-dominantly between resistant and susceptible plants. These markers, Ebmac0871- SSR, HVS3-SCAR, Bmag0006-SSR, reside on different arms of barley chromosome 3H. Ebmac871 is localized on the short arm of 3H and HVS3 and Bmag0006 are localized on the long arm of 3H. This result indicates that the scald resistance genes which they tag are probably close to the centromeric region of this chromosome. Scald resistance from several sources map to the proximal region of the long arm of chromosome 3H, forming the complex Rrs1 locus. The availability of highly polymorphic markers for the discrimination of breeding material would be extremely useful for barley breeders to select for the trait at the DNA level rather than relying on phenotypic expression and infection reaction.
Eyespot is one of the most important fungal diseases of the stem base of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The presented study clearly demonstrated that the Pch1 gene was the main effective source for reducing the eyespot disease score in the analyzed winter wheat lines. Nevertheless, Pch1 was present only in 8−9% of the investigated lines. Using an isoenzymatic marker and molecular markers, the presence of the Pch1 gene and lack of the Pch2 gene was identified in six lines. Two lines, SMH 9409 and DL 358/13/4, were polymorphic in an isoenzymatic marker study. In the remaining three lines, C 3373/11-1, KBH 15.15 and KBP 1416, the Pch1 gene was identified only with the use of an isoenzymatic marker. Both genes Pch1 and Pch2, as well as the resistant variety Rendezvous, were found in three lines: DD 248/12, KBP 15.2 and STH 4431. In line DD 708/13, the presence of the Pch1 and Pch2 genes was identified, where the association between the Pch1 and the locus of the Xorw5 marker was broken. It was shown that the presence or absence of Pch1 and Pch2 genes did not significantly affect the grain yield (from the plot), although the yield was highest in the presence of both genes. A significant effect of the presence of the Pch1 gene on thousand kernel weight (TKW) was observed. Lines with the Pch1 gene showed significantly higher TKW values than lines without both genes or with the Pch2 gene only.
This communication reports detection of somaclonal variation among tissue culture-raised plants of Amorphophallus rivieri Durieu, an economically important crop in China, with high content of glucomannan in its corms. A population of regenerated plants was obtained from a single donor plant of A. rivieri via corm organogenesis, and 28 plants were randomly selected as a representative sample and subjected to analysis of somaclonal variation using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Of the 26 ISSR primers screened, 13 gave distinct and reproducible band patterns, yielding 131 bands with an average of 10.1 bands per primer. Ten primers were polymorphic and generated 16 polymorphic bands with 12.2% mean polymorphism. Based on the ISSR data from the regenerated plants and the donor plant, Jaccard's similarity coefficients were calculated; they ranged from 0.961 to 1.000 with a mean of 0.982. A dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (Upgma); it showed that a majority of regenerated plants (including the donor plant) clustered closely, with a mean similarity coefficient of 0.987. Low somaclonal variation observed in the regenerated plants indicates that rapid propagation of A. rivieri via corm organogenesis is a practicable method with a low risk of genetic instability.
Aeromonas hydrophila is a valuable indicator of the quality of water polluted by sewage and pathogens that pose a risk for humans and cold-blooded animals, including fi sh. The main aim of this research was to evaluate anthropogenic pollution of river water based on genetic diversity of 82 A. hydrophila strains by means of RAPD, semi-random AP-PCR (ISJ) and the rep-BOX conservative repeats test. Genetic diversity of A. hydrophila was HT = 0.28 (SD = 0.02) for all DNA markers (RAPD, semi random and rep-BOX). None of the analyzed electrophoretic patterns was identical, implying that there were many sources of strain transmission. The presence of genes for aerolysin (aerA), hemolysin (ahh1) and the cytotoxic enzyme complex (AHCYTOGEN) was verifi ed for all tested strains, and drug resistance patterns for tetracycline, enrofl oxacin and erythromycin were determined. The most diverse A. hydrophila strains isolated from river water were susceptible to enrofl oxacine (HS = 0.27), whereas less diverse strains were susceptible to erythromycin (HS = 0.24). The presence of the multidrug resistance marker (ISJ4-25; 1100 bp locus) in the examined strains (resistant to three analyzed drugs) indicates that intensive fi sh cultivation affects the microbiological quality of river water.
Główne pytanie tekstu dotyczy wchodzenia w dorosłość młodych Polaków w wieku 18-29 lat, ich postrzegania dorosłości. Zgodnie z wynikami badania młodzi odchodzą obecnie od deﬁniowania dorosłości w kategoriach tradycyjnych markerów społecznych na rzecz własności intrapsychicznych oraz kompetencji. Dorosłość jest silnie związana z postrzeganiem siebie jako osoby kompetentnej w obszarze zawodowym i relacji społecznych, z pewną autonomię. Markery te (kompetencji, relacji, autonomii) na poziomie mikro odpowiadają najważniejszym potrzebom psychicznym człowieka (teoria autodeterminacji). Na poziomie makro markery te są zbieżne z charakterystyką czterech europejskich modeli wchodzenia w dorosłość, stworzonych przez Cécile van de Velde. Polski model wydaje się mieć charakter hybrydowy, łączący dużą rolę kompetencji zawodowych i autonomii z naciskiem na samorozwój jednostki.