Who owns the city? Do the inhabitants of modern cities have a reflection on their place of everyday life? Do they treat the city as commons? Do they feel co-responsible for the directions of development of their cities? Answers to the above questions have far-reaching consequences for urban development policy. They are the basis for assessing the ongoing democratization processes in the local government sphere. They also reveal important aspects of the condition of civil society. Although, on the basis of various indicators the trend is positive, it seems that the awareness of the role of the citizen versus the ordinary resident is poorly rooted in the attitudes of the Polish people. And the lesson of citizenship is still an undisrupted task for a large part of the inhabitants of our country. The greatest hopes lie in the generation of young and educated Poles who, through the development of participative management mechanisms, are becoming more aware of the possibilities of citizens’ influence on urban policy. The article is an attempt to answer the above questions based on literature review, current press articles and empirical studies conducted among a group of students.
The article presents the development of industrial cities: Zabrze, Bytom and Gliwice regarding the background of historical changes, the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors. The development of these cities was connected with trade, hard coal mining and heavy industry. These cities were interconnected administratively, communicatively and economically. They changed their nationality and joined other towns. The different concepts of authorities regarding urban spaces and the profile of a given city were implemented. The influence of various factors, taking place even historically distant time, related to the city’s development concepts and shaping their centers, has become one of the challenges that cities are trying to meet. The activity of various entities in the city center is a measure of the attractiveness of the city itself. Examples of cities: Zabrze, Bytom and Gliwice show the diff erence in the situation in which each of these cities is located.
A method for precise sound sources detection and localization in interiors is presented. Acoustic vector sensors, which provide multichannel output signals of acoustic pressure and particle velocity were employed. Methods for detecting acoustic events are introduced. The algorithm for localizing sound events in the audience is presented. The system set up in a lecture hall, which serves as a demonstrator of the proposed technology, is described. The accurracy of the proposed method is evaluated by the described measurement results. The analysis of the results is followed by conclusions pertaining the usability of the proposed system. The concept of the multimodal audio-visual detection of events in the audience is also introduced.
The objective of the study is to assess the hearing performance of cochlear implant users in three device microphone configurations: omni-directional, directional, and beamformer (BEAMformer two-adaptive noise reduction system), in localization and speech perception tasks in dynamically changing listening environments. Seven cochlear implant users aided with Cochlear CM-24 devices with Freedom speech processor participated in the study. For the localization test in quiet and in background noise, subjects demonstrated significant differences between different microphone settings. Confusion matrices showed that in about 70% cases cochlear implant subjects correctly localized sounds within a horizontal angle of 30-40◦ (±1◦ loudspeaker apart from signal source). However localization in noise was less accurate as shown by a large number of considerable errors in localization in the confusion matrices. Average results indicated no significant difference between three microphone configurations. For speech presented from the front 3 dB SNR improvements in speech intelligibility in three subjects can be observed for beamforming system compared to directional and omni-directional microphone settings. The benefits of using different microphone settings in cochlear implant devices in dynamically changing listening conditions depend on the particular sound environment
The paper demonstrates that blind people localize sounds more accurately than sighted people by using monaural and/or binaural cues. In the experiment, blind people participated in two tests; the first one took place in the laboratory and the second one in the real environment under different noise conditions. A simple click sound was employed and processed with non-individual head related transfer functions. The sounds were delivered by a system with a maximum azimuth of 32° to the left side and 32° to the right side of the participant’s head at a distance ranging from 0.3 m up to 5 m. The present paper describes the experimental methods and results of virtual sound localization by blind people through the use of a simple electronic travel aid based on an infrared laser pulse and the time of flight distance measurement principle. The lack of vision is often compensated by other perceptual abilities, such as the tactile or hearing ability. The results show that blind people easily perceive and localize binaural sounds and assimilate them with sounds from the environment.
The mining methods are classified as the methods of data analysis and the knowledge acquisition and they are derived from the methods of "Knowledge Discovery". Within the scope of these methods, there are two main variants associated with a form of data,i.e.: "data" and "text mining". The author of the paper tries to find an answer to a question about helpfulness and usefulness of these methods for the purpose of knowledge acquisition in the construction industry. The very process of knowledge acquisition is essential in terms of the systems and tools operating based on knowledge. Nowadays, they are the basis for the tools which support the decision-making processes. The paper presents three cases studies. The mining methods have been applied to practical problems – the selection of an adhesive mortar coupled with alternative solutions, analysis of residential real estate locations under construction by a developer company as well as support of technical management of a building facility with a large floor area.
The article presents empirical material obtained in sociological surveys conducted in the Wejherowo area in the year 2014. The purpose of the survey was to record the residents’ opinions on the needs and problems relating to selected functioning aspects of the town and its downtown district, the perception and valuation of the area, the town’s revitalization investments, both planned and in progress, and the perception of the changes taking place in selected spheres of the town’s life. The survey reveals that the dwellers of Wejherowo are capable of responding to the problems the town faces in intellectual and personal dimensions, they follow the postulates related to the ideas and concepts of a creative town more or less consciously, and have a preference for the town ensuring access to the broadly construed culture and entertainment. This encapsulates a vision of developing town cultures, with the focal point evidently shifted from the concept of a town as a place accumulating specimens of architecture and a symbolic space to the town construed as a complex of better facilities and solutions which make everyday life more convenient. More frequently than ever before, town identity becomes the function of negotiations between what is local and what is global. The quality of town life and the features of its ‘town-like character’ appear to be the outcome of continuous and subtle dialectics between the residents and the physical form in which they live, i.e. the town.
The subject of the article is the occurrence of dialectal features in Internet nicknames. The analysis was carried out on the basis of about 2500 nicknames that contained dialectal features. The names were obtained within the years 2012–2015. In the analysis, linguistic areas were indicated in which we may notice the influence of local dialects on that layer of the Internet anthroponymy. The influence of local dialects is visible in the fact that the Internet users reach for traditional folk names as well as name models related to the folk manner of identifying a human being, e.g. Jagatka, Jantecek, Janielka od Genowefy, Cesiek z Tuchowa. Apart from references to folk anthroponymy, the Internet nicknames reflect the influence of local dialect lexis (e.g. gzub, graślok, fusyt), phonetics (janioł, Carownica, łokrutny łoptymista), inflection (Śpisok z Łapsóf, ciupaga łod tater) and word-formation, e.g. (rzemyszek, cwaniuk).
The article describes the relationship between the local community and the primary school considered as “place” within the meaning derived from the book by yi-Fu Tuan “Space and place: The perspective of experience”. The article compares the cases of two schools in the city of bielsko-biała (the city has a population of 175 thousands inhabitants). One school is overcrowded, yet its future existence has been secured. The second school, however, was first transferred to another location and it eventually went into liquidation in 2012. The article demonstrates then underlying reasons and consequences of losing the school as place. Moreover, it indicates potential problems emerging in such cases altogether with a set of possible solutions.
This paper presents a synthesis of research in the field of social activity in development of urban public spaces. Interest in social participation in which many groups sees a remedy to the problems of the city - including spatial chaos - has many causes. One of them is the lack of trust in the social side to the profession of architecture. The article indicates the possible cause of this state for which it was flawed legislation and the planning system, which in practice is not conducive to the formation of order, harmony and beauty, but facilitate the implementation of the narrow groups of interests, bringing the rank of designer as creator of the role of the investor's decision executor.
This paper presents the comparison of filtering methods – median filtration, moving average Kalman filtration and filtration based on a distance difference to determine the most accurate arm length for circular motion, as a model of wind turbine propellers movement. The experiments have been performed with the UWB technology system containing four anchors and a tag attached to 90cm arm that was rotated with speed up to 15.5 rad/s (as a linear speed of 50km/h). The trilateration concept based on the signal latency has been described in order to determinate the position of an object on circular trajectory. The main objective is the circle plane rotation (parallel and perpendicular) with respect to the anchors plane reference system. All research tasks have been performed for various cases of motion schemes in order to get the filtration method for object in motion under best accuracy goal. Filtration methods have been applied on one of two stages of the positioning algorithm: (1) on raw data got from the single anchor-tag (before trilateration); (2) on the position obtained from four anchors and tag (after trilateration). It has been proven that the appropriate filtering allows for higher location accuracy. Moreover, location capabilities with the use of UWB technology – shows prospective use of positioning of objects without access to other positioning forms (ex. GPS) in many aspects of life such as currently developing renewable, green energy sources like wind turbines where the circular motion plays an important role, and precise positioning of propellers is a key element in monitoring the work of the whole wind turbine.
A sensing system utilizing a standard optical fiber as a distributed sensor for the detection and localization of mechanical vibrations is presented. Vibrations can be caused by various external factors, like moving people, cars, trains, and other objects producing mechanical vibrations that are sensed by a fiber. In our laboratory we have designed a sensing system based on the Φ-OTDR (phase sensitive Optical Time Domain Reflectometry) using an extremely narrow laser and EDFAs.
This paper presents a comprehensive metrological analysis of the Microsoft Kinect motion sensor performed using a proprietary flat marker. The designed marker was used to estimate its position in the external coordinate system associated with the sensor. The study includes calibration of the RGB and IR cameras, parameter identification and image registration. The metrological analysis is based on the data corrected for sensor optical distortions. From the metrological point of view, localization errors are related to the distance of an object from the sensor. Therefore, the rotation angles were determined and an accuracy assessment of the depth maps was performed. The analysis was carried out for the distances from the marker in the range of 0.8−1.65 m. The maximum average error was equal to 23 mm for the distance of 1.6 m.
Available methods for room-related sound presentation are introduced and evaluated. A focus is put on the synthesis side rather than on complete transmission systems. Different methods are compared using common, though quite general criteria. The methods selected for comparison are: Intensity Stereophony after Blumlein, vector-base amplitude panning (VBAP), 5.1-Surround and its discrete-channel derivatives, synthesis with spherical harmonics (Ambisonics, HOA), synthesis based on the boundary method, namely, wave-field synthesis (WFS), and binaural-cue selection methods (e.g., DiRAC). While VBAP, 5.1-Surround and other discrete-channel-based methods show a number of practical advantages, they do, in the end, not aim at authentic sound-field reproduction. The so-called holophonic methods that do so, particularly, HOA and WFS, have specific advantages and disadvantages which will be discussed. Yet, both methods are under continuous development, and a decision in favor of one of them should be taken from a strictly application-oriented point of view by considering relevant application-specific advantages and disadvantages in detail.
This article presents results of investigations of the angle of directional hearing acuity (ADHA) as a measure of the spatial hearing ability with a special emphasis on people with hearing impairments. A modified method proposed by Zakrzewski has been used - ADHA values have been determined for 8 azimuths in the horizontal plane at the height of the listeners' head. The two-alternative-forced-choice method (2AFC), based on a new system of listeners' responses (left - right instead of no difference - difference in location of sound sources) was the procedure used in the experiment. Investigations were carried out for two groups of subjects: normal hearing people (9 persons) and hearing impaired people (sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus - 9 persons). In the experiment different acoustic signals were used: sinusoidal signals (pure tones), 1/3 octave noise, amplitude modulated 1/3 octave noise, CCITT speech and traffic noises and signals corresponding to personal character of tinnitus for individual subjects. The results obtained in the investigations showed, in general, a better localization of the sound source for noise type signals than those for tonal signals. Inessential differences exist in ADHA values for particular signals between the two groups of subjects. On the other hand, significant differences for tinnitus signals and traffic noise signals were stated. A new system of listeners' responses was used and appeared efficient (less dispersion of results compared to the standard system).
The use of individualised Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTF) is a fundamental prerequisite for obtaining an accurate rendering of 3D spatialised sounds in virtual auditory environments. The HRTFs are transfer functions that define the acoustical basis of auditory perception of a sound source in space and are frequently used in virtual auditory displays to simulate free-field listening conditions. However, they depend on the anatomical characteristics of the human body and significantly vary among individuals, so that the use of the same dataset of HRTFs for all the users of a designed system will not offer the same level of auditory performance. This paper presents an alternative approach to the use on non-individualised HRTFs that is based on a procedural learning, training, and adaptation to altered auditory cues.We tested the sound localisation performance of nine sighted and visually impaired people, before and after a series of perceptual (auditory, visual, and haptic) feedback based training sessions. The results demonstrated that our subjects significantly improved their spatial hearing under altered listening conditions (such as the presentation of 3D binaural sounds synthesised from non-individualized HRTFs), the improvement being reflected into a higher localisation accuracy and a lower rate of front-back confusion errors.
Sound localization problems are usually tackled by the acquisition of data from phased microphone arrays and the application of acoustic holography or beamforming algorithms. However, the number of sensors required to achieve reliable results is often prohibitive, particularly if the frequency range of interest is wide. It is shown that the number of sensors required can be reduced dramatically providing the sound field is time stationary. The use of scanning techniques such as “Scan & Paint” allows for the gathering of data across a sound field in a fast and efficient way, using a single sensor and webcam only. It is also possible to characterize the relative phase field by including an additional static microphone during the acquisition process. This paper presents the theoretical and experimental basis of the proposed method to localise sound sources using only one fixed microphone and one moving acoustic sensor. The accuracy and resolution of the method have been proven to be comparable to large microphone arrays, thus constituting the so called “virtual phased arrays”.
The author defends the thesis that language is an attribute of a nation and as such it is offi cially protected by the international legal system irrespective of the number of its speakers; thus, there is no such phenomenon as a “little language”. Linguistic minorities speak their mother languages or some dialectal variants of those languages
The present elaboration gives the results of investigations carried out by the VLF method in September. 1980. in Fuglebersletta, in the Hornsund Fiord area, Spitsbergen. The aim of the investigations was to localize precisely the ore-bearing veins and to trace their course.
Rural areas have great potential, which properly supported can signifi cantly accelerate the socio-economic development of the country. However, the resources and values of individual areas are spatially diversifi ed, which means the diversity of development challenges and the necessity to diversify the instruments of local development policy as well as the territorialisation of development policy. The need to deal with development issues in connection with the development of urban functional areas and, more broadly, node regions, remains unchanged for all types of rural areas, which means the necessity of joint planning of spatial development, implementation of common development strategies of the entire functional area and pursuit of common socio-economic goals. The endogenous theory of local development remains valid, but it must be based on resources that go beyond the administrative boundaries of a single municipality. The need for network local development planning applies in particularly to peripheral rural areas, since rural municipalities often do not have sufficient economic potential to stay competitive even on a local scale. Only in partnership with other municipalities, within the framework of nodal regions, they can implement more eff ective competitive strategies. Another aspect of the network cooperation is the need to involve non-public entities into local economy. Establishing partnerships for the implementation of development goals may increase the chances of achieving a favourable competitive position and implementation of effective development strategies.
The research issues discussed in the paper concentrate on the participation of the municipal services sector in shaping local development in the commune. The aim of the study is to verify the actual level of involvement of this sector in the development process of the commune, and the thesis is: “The activities of the municipal services sector are one of the factors shaping local development in the commune.” The basic research method is a critical review of domestic and foreign literature and participant observation.
One of the current challenges in transport is e-mobility, understood as electromobility, ecomobility and mobility economics. E-mobility is nowadays a key focus area of socio-technical change, in terms of attention from policy makers as well as from industry and the public. The societal challenges ahead, in particular climate change put increasing pressure on the current mobility system, due to its tremendous environmental impact. Furthermore e-mobility is seen as major economic opportunity for the automotive industry. In this context, based on the available literature and documents and practical solutions implemented already in cities and agglomerations, the paper discusses the fundamental challenges that cities are to face in the context of the current megatrends. This process will engage diff erent stakeholders in order to make this concept become a reality.
The article is part of the trend of research on revitalization. It presents the methodology of the process of diagnosis and separation of the degraded area from the revitalized one, for the needs of the Local Revitalization Program. The article describes the stages of the process, the examples of used measures, as well as problems appearing at diff erent stages of the study. The methodology is presented on the example of the small town of Wojkowice from the Śląskie Province.
The urban form creates the city structure, whose spatial values not only shape the functionality of the city, but also its identity, whose the most important determinant is the urban tissue. The subject of the study is the analysis of selected historical areas of Cracow in the scope of composition and readability of their urban structure. The analysis focuses on the identification of the most important aspects of spatial renewal processes of these spaces. These processes aimed at strengthening their potential as local centres, that can become a factor stimulating the development of the individual urban units. The increase in the attractiveness and quality of public spaces will positively affect the degree of their perception by the inhabitants and the social relations taking place in them. This in turn, influences the degree of the social involvement in development processes and the creation of more or less spontaneous, bottom-up activities.
Cities play a special role in the process of sustainable development of the country. The city management plays a fundamental role in this challenge. The mayor should become a manager and manage the city based on a strategic marketing management model. Thanks to this, it can optimally use available financial instruments that give the opportunity to achieve strategic development goals of the city.