Who owns the city? Do the inhabitants of modern cities have a reflection on their place of everyday life? Do they treat the city as commons? Do they feel co-responsible for the directions of development of their cities? Answers to the above questions have far-reaching consequences for urban development policy. They are the basis for assessing the ongoing democratization processes in the local government sphere. They also reveal important aspects of the condition of civil society. Although, on the basis of various indicators the trend is positive, it seems that the awareness of the role of the citizen versus the ordinary resident is poorly rooted in the attitudes of the Polish people. And the lesson of citizenship is still an undisrupted task for a large part of the inhabitants of our country. The greatest hopes lie in the generation of young and educated Poles who, through the development of participative management mechanisms, are becoming more aware of the possibilities of citizens’ influence on urban policy. The article is an attempt to answer the above questions based on literature review, current press articles and empirical studies conducted among a group of students.
The article presents the development of industrial cities: Zabrze, Bytom and Gliwice regarding the background of historical changes, the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors. The development of these cities was connected with trade, hard coal mining and heavy industry. These cities were interconnected administratively, communicatively and economically. They changed their nationality and joined other towns. The different concepts of authorities regarding urban spaces and the profile of a given city were implemented. The influence of various factors, taking place even historically distant time, related to the city’s development concepts and shaping their centers, has become one of the challenges that cities are trying to meet. The activity of various entities in the city center is a measure of the attractiveness of the city itself. Examples of cities: Zabrze, Bytom and Gliwice show the diff erence in the situation in which each of these cities is located.
We are observing an increase in development activity of the cities with poviat rights nowadays. It is visible especially in the area of obtaining European funds, financial policy, infrastructure or entrepreneurship. Those matters, especially experience of cities with poviat rights as the main beneficiaries became an interesting research area now. The aim of the article is to assess the competitiveness and development level of the cities with poviat rights in voivodships of Eastern Poland. For the purposes of this article, a synthetic measure has been used. Taking into account the availability and comparability of data as well as statistical criteria, the variables describing: financial situation, economy and infrastructure in the system of cities with poviat rights in voivodships of Eastern Poland were adopted. Data from the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office for 2008, 2012 and 2016 were the main source of the article.
Rural areas have great potential, which properly supported can signifi cantly accelerate the socio-economic development of the country. However, the resources and values of individual areas are spatially diversifi ed, which means the diversity of development challenges and the necessity to diversify the instruments of local development policy as well as the territorialisation of development policy. The need to deal with development issues in connection with the development of urban functional areas and, more broadly, node regions, remains unchanged for all types of rural areas, which means the necessity of joint planning of spatial development, implementation of common development strategies of the entire functional area and pursuit of common socio-economic goals. The endogenous theory of local development remains valid, but it must be based on resources that go beyond the administrative boundaries of a single municipality. The need for network local development planning applies in particularly to peripheral rural areas, since rural municipalities often do not have sufficient economic potential to stay competitive even on a local scale. Only in partnership with other municipalities, within the framework of nodal regions, they can implement more eff ective competitive strategies. Another aspect of the network cooperation is the need to involve non-public entities into local economy. Establishing partnerships for the implementation of development goals may increase the chances of achieving a favourable competitive position and implementation of effective development strategies.
The research issues discussed in the paper concentrate on the participation of the municipal services sector in shaping local development in the commune. The aim of the study is to verify the actual level of involvement of this sector in the development process of the commune, and the thesis is: “The activities of the municipal services sector are one of the factors shaping local development in the commune.” The basic research method is a critical review of domestic and foreign literature and participant observation.
One of the current challenges in transport is e-mobility, understood as electromobility, ecomobility and mobility economics. E-mobility is nowadays a key focus area of socio-technical change, in terms of attention from policy makers as well as from industry and the public. The societal challenges ahead, in particular climate change put increasing pressure on the current mobility system, due to its tremendous environmental impact. Furthermore e-mobility is seen as major economic opportunity for the automotive industry. In this context, based on the available literature and documents and practical solutions implemented already in cities and agglomerations, the paper discusses the fundamental challenges that cities are to face in the context of the current megatrends. This process will engage diff erent stakeholders in order to make this concept become a reality.
The paper indicates the signifi cance of the development policy territorialization for an enhancing competitiveness of cities and regions. The characteristics of such a policy allow revealing of the nature of territorial instruments. The authors, referring to their consulting practice and the research work done for the Ministry of Development, frame their recommendations. Those recommendations constitute the guidelines for amendment of territorial instruments in the context of National Regional Development Strategy actualization.
The contemporary world is marked by clear disproportions in terms of living, working and wage. This problem also applies to Poland, including the layout designated by cities. The quantitative analysis carried out proves that the identified disproportions in the development potential have a relatively permanent character, which gives them structural attribute. In this context, the desirable effectiveness of development policy (subordinate to the vision and funds of EU cohesion policy) becomes highly questionable. Today’s economic inclusion is a serious challenge to the failure of recognized development policies. The shaping of the socio-economic order of the state requires a new look at local development, starting from a reliable diagnosis, part of which is this study, to bold and real visions.
For a long time creativity, innovativeness and entrepreneurship have been at the heart of studies on economic growth of regions and cities. In the paper the three notions are scrutinised together to propose conceptual approach to establishing research and development pathways, based upon three-stage identification of: research problems, project patterns and relational mechanisms. The paper is concluded with a 63 Box – the approach helping to navigate throughout project preparation phase.
Urban regeneration is driven by many different engines. These engines, however, in some circumstances may appear to turn to either a success or failure factor. In this context, it is appropriate to analyse how factors that serve the regeneration process are affected by embedding research in a particular paradigm set by the theories of so called “regional development”. The choice of these concepts analysed in the article was the result of literature review. The article consists of four parts. The first part defines the development factors and shows how the concentration of negative phenomena in degraded areas may inhibit their optimal use in the context of the city as a whole. Two subsequent chapters analyse how major theories of regional development picture external and internal factors that influence the development of a specific territory. Then, in the summary the author discusses, how main urban and regional development theories reflect the rationale for mitigating barriers in using local development factors as real driving forces of urban regeneration.
The EU member states have implemented excise duties on fuel and electricity according to the EU Energy Tax Directive. The purpose of these measures is to motivate a reduction in energy consumption by internalizing external costs of energy. The taxes on energy have success in inciting energy savings. Simultaneously, the price levels of energy in the EU member states have increased to levels significantly higher compared to other countries in the region and the world. The price increase is the result of a cumulative effect of excise duties and other taxes and mechanisms including feed-in tariffs and quota policies. While the Energy Tax Directive gives the member states a level of freedom in setting the exact duty rates, the minimal rates enforced on all member states are relatively high. The policy intends to limit competition between the states on low energy prices and arbitrage trading between countries. We examine the purchasing power for energy products relative to the per capita GDP for a wide set of countries countries within the EU and in the rest of the world. We can identify several groups or clusters of countries based on their GDP per capita and energy prices. The new member states of the EU face a unique combination of low or moderate GDP per capita and very high energy prices. Their relative purchasing power for energy is degraded to levels comparable or lower than the purchasing power in developing countries with significantly lower GDP per capita and underdeveloped energy infrastructure. The calibration of energy taxation in the EU at high price levels suitable for Western European economies with high per capita GDP is leading to strong negative social effects and increasing poverty in Eastern European member states. The current implementation of these policies does not recognize to a sufficient extent income levels, regional social inequalities, and the low price elasticity of demand for energy.
In this article the author attempts to define the specificity of the tools for development planning at the local level in the context of: institutional resources of community (gmina) (and means of strengthening them), models of public management as well as the specifics of the Polish public administration system and its ensuing dysfunctions. These dysfunctions rely mainly on a limited awareness of the need to create mechanisms of coordination for: socio-economics, spatial and financial planning. These factors contribute to a decrease in the effectiveness of measures for the development of communities. Socio-economic planning answers the question: WHAT we want to do in the community; spatial planning: WHERE we would like to carry out certain activities, and financial planning: HOW MUCH it will cost and where the financial sources are. We can see the theoretical causal links between the areas of development planning, therefore, the main purpose of this article is to offer conceptual framework and a relevant case study of Kraków serving as its validation attempt.
The subject of the study are strategies for the development of 9 cities, which are among the strongest centres outside the current capitals of regions (in Polish: voivodeships) in the least-developed Polish regions. These cities can give the chance to activate their surroundings. Good strategies that increase the competitiveness of cities and stimulate development can contribute to this. The aim of the research was to fi nd answers to the questions whether and to what extent the studied strategies: (1) are in line with the definition and methodology of strategic planning; (2) recognize and use specific combinations of developmental factors; (3) can contribute to the development of their surroundings. The research method involved the analysis of the strategic plans in the light of the above questions. The strategies studied are not fully in line with the strategy defi nition. They contain errors and methodological flaws commonly encountered in other strategies. They use the specificity of developmental factors, but without conscious, methodical recognition of their combinations and without exposing them. The author signals methodical problems specific to the strategic planning in territorial units and makes suggestions for planning practice.
The Opole region struggles from the most unfavourable demographic situation among all Polish administrative regions. The region is not only losing its population but also reports a growing number of inhabitants aged 50 and more. For this reason, demographic challenges are high on the region’s development agenda. The establishment of the Special Demographic Zone for Opolskie Voivodeship (SDZ) has provided an incentive to take measures, both on the local and regional scale, to reverse the undesirable situation. This article discusses one of the SDZ packages, namely Package 4 Golden Autumn intended for persons aged 50 and move. Based on surveys held in the municipalities of the Opole region, the author seeks to answer questions related to the perception of the existing demographic processes as developmental barriers and looks at different initiatives and action taken by local self-governments for 50+ residents.
In search for a path of development, some communities face internal factors deeply influencing the choice of development strategy. Such factor would be an environmental protection of the territory, as it may crucially limit industrial activity. Narol community, located in southeastern Poland, near the Ukrainian border (Podkarpackie Voivodeship), has landscape protection of several levels covering 100% of the territory, so the possible development could not consist on industrial investments. On the other hand the concerned region, Roztocze, is a recognized touristic area, but Narol was always rather out of its main tourists trails. Nevertheless its assets (nature reserves, landscape and monuments), would predestine Narol for a touristic destination. But, considering strong competition in the region, the distinguishing feature would be of importance. The municipality had recognized cultural tourism as a way Narol could adopt, and has started several activities aiming to transform Narol into a cultural centre of the region. This paper presents the study case of Narol municipality’s activities in the context of transferring neglected heritage into an activated agent of development – resulting in social and economic growth. Its’ aim is to research (based on the Narol example) a place of local heritage assets in development process: if, and how they can be used to increase community’s sustainable growth.
Local development, based on the use of endogenous potentials, requires the cooperation of muni-cipalities in urban functional areas (agglomerations). However, conducting joint activities in the area of building and running local development policy is a serious challenge. On the one hand, there is a shortage of experience in this area (not counting the short period of functio-ning municipal unions in the years 1920-1939 and intentional inter-communal relations after 1990). In addition, there are still no legal solutions needed (in addition to the act passed in 2017 for the metropolis of Silesia and Zagłębie). In recent years, however, projects of integra-ted territorial investments and other project partnerships have been implemented under the European Union and the Norwegian Financial Mechanism Programs, which result in prac-tical conclusions and legislative recommendations. The most important of them concern the introduction of a new form of partner cooperation and the adoption of a new urban code. Their quick implementation will enable more eff ective cooperation for development.
Nowadays, the ubiquity of changes determines a new approach to programming development. In this situation, it is necessary to update the strategy of socio-economic development in many cities. The aim of the paper is to present the process of updating the city’s development strategy on selected examples (Katowice, Cracow, Poznań, Warsaw and Wrocław), through the prism of the scale and tools of public participation. Wrocław is a centre that particularly approached the implementation of the megatrend of public participation in the work on updating the development strategy. The paper delineates differences between public consultations and real public participation. The following research methods were used in the study: literature research, analysis of source texts, benchmarking and comparative analysis. The time horizon covers the period of public participation in the documents’ construction and is different for particular cities selected for analysis, however, it falls in the years 2013-2017.
A number of thorough studies characterizing national and regional innovation systems have been published over the last years but what is relatively new is the theme of local innovation systems. In the era of increasing emphasis on urban issues in the development policies of countries and organizations such as the European Union and the location of innovation in the centre of regional development debate, it is justifi ed to ask how the measures are directed to the provincial cities. The article concentrates on 5 voivodeship cities as the main centers of regions with the highest number of institutions that usually build local innovation systems, three of which are located in the less developed regions in Poland.
The article presents the problem of the settlements development in the Ojców National Park (ONP) and its buffer zone, both located in the suburban area of Cracow (Poland). The aim of the research was to recognize the social perception of this phenomenon, as well as the residents opinion about the limitations in spatial management related to the functioning of the Park. Interviews were made among 204 residents, and 40 representatives of local self-governments, cultural institutions, associations, administrators of tourist facilities and entrepreneurs. The local community perceives constraints in the new buildings construction and in enlargement or modernization of the existing ones as the main problem for people living in the ONP or its buffer zone. Driven by their particular interests, residents advocate the further development of the settlements and tourist infrastructure within the Park and the buffer zone, the liberalization of regulations, and even the liquidation of the Park’s buffer zone. They do not understand that the natural and landscape values (highly appreciated by them) can be degraded due to these activities.
The paper presents the author’s reflection regarding the recent transformations of the city of Krakow. The study is focused on the changes that are novelties or distinctive to the city. The conclusions indicate activities that should be treated by city authorities as challenges for the public management of the metropolitan scale.
The paper presents the concept of vital cities in the context of mechanisms of sustainable development, networking and creativity. The vital city was presented as: - a city belonging to the inhabitants – a city managed and developed with advanced processes of participation, - a city of reasonable management – a city that uses and at the same time protects its key potentials, - a city of creation – a city of creating and implementing new ideas, - a city of opportunities – a city that creates the conditions for the use of energy and creativity residents, - a city in the surround – a city with a strong position in the environment.
Local and Regional Policy in the Light of Depopulation – Example of Silesian Voivodeship. Decreasing number of population along with demographic ageing create significant developing challenges in the labour market, in housing, social infrastructure, education and in many other areas. This applies in particular to the areas in which significant intensification of depopulation is already observed or expected to occur. Therefore, it should be considered when local and regional policies are being created, and it should be reflected in development strategies formulated for each area. The goal of the article is to determine whether the formulated development strategies reflect the real needs arising from the observed social processes and how precisely they reflect local and regional policies. This problem is illustrated by the example of the Silesia Voivodeship.
Potential Compensatory Costs Related to Invalid Spatial Planning in Communes. The purpose of the article is to compare the costs of enacted local plans and their possible repeal in the part concerning the faulty (irrational) allocation of land for various functions. It was attempted to estimate the costs associated with the hypothetical repeal of local plans in a situation where such a need arises, resulting from the overestimation of areas designated especially for housing development. These costs are primarily the need to pay compensation to landowners for those parts of the land that first changed their intended use from a lower market value to a higher one, and then there would be a hypothetical “reverse” operation (e.g. restoration of agricultural use). It was obtained that depending on the methodology, these costs could fluctuate between 135-325 billion PLN. This means that there is no possibility of ‘automatic’ repealing defective local plans across the all country.
The Act of July 5, 2018 on Facilitating of Preparation and Implementation of Housing and Accompanying Investments allows such investments irrespective of the existence of a local development plan or determination of use of land in the local development plan. In other words, the abovementioned investments may be implemented on land with a completely different designation according to the local development plan, as for example the mining of minerals. The location of the investment is decided by a resolution of the municipal council. If the planned location is to be situated within the boundaries of documented mineral deposits and the so-called „mining areas”, it needs, among others, to be agreed with the appropriate geological administration authority. Not taking a position within 21 days is considered as a consent. With reference to the deposits not covered by mining licenses, the Act does not indicate the premises that should be taken into consideration while providing such consent. There is a concern that this may lead to the development of the land in a way that will cause the subsequent extraction of the mineral impossible.