The chemical composition and bioactivity of a water/methanol extract prepared from aerial parts of Circaea lutetiana were determined. HPLC-DAD-MS3 analysis revealed the presence of 14 different compounds comprising phenolic acids, ellagitannins and flavonoids. Antioxidant assays showed the extract's strong scavenging activity towards DPPH (SC50 33.1±3.1 μg/ml), O2 - (SC50 4.0±2.3 μg/ml) and H2O2 (SC50 below 2 μg/ml). Enzyme-based studies revealed that Circaea lutetiana extract inhibits the activity of hyaluronidase (IC50 13.3±2.4 μg/ml) and lipoxygenase (IC50 44.7±1.4 μg/ml). These results support some traditional uses of Circaea lutetiana.
Nanotechnology has been widely applied in agriculture, and understanding of the mechanisms of plant interaction with nanoparticles (NPs) as environmental contaminants is important. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of foliar application of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) NPs on some morpho-physiological and biochemical changes of canola (Brassica napus L.) leaves. Seeds were sown in plastic pots and grown under controlled conditions. Fourteen-day-old seedlings were sprayed with different concentrations of Co3O4 NPs (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg L-1) at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. Growth parameters of the shoot (length, fresh and dry weights) were stimulated by low concentrations of Co3O4 NPs (50 and 100 mg L-1) and repressed by higher concentrations. Similar trends were observed in photosynthetic pigment contents. The results indicated that high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs increased lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) contents, but reduced the membrane stability index (MSI), ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH). Despite the increase of antioxidant capacity (DPPH) and the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoids and flavonols) and osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine (GB) and soluble sugars) at high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs, the growth and photosynthesis were reduced. The defence system activity did not seem to be sufficient to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs showed a phytotoxic potential for canola as an oilseed crop.