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Abstract

Two field experiments were established at the Agricultural Experimental Station of the National Research Centre at Nubaria, Beheira Governorate, Egypt to study the herbicidal potential of the leaf extract of Eucalyptus citriodora at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% compared to two hand hoeing, unweeded treatments and the chemical herbicides Bentazon + Clethodium, Bentazon + Fluazifop-P-butyl and Butralin on pea plants and associated weeds. The results indicated that two hand hoeing achieved the maximum weed depression as expressed by the dry matter of total weeds. The dry matter of total weeds decreased by 95.08 to 94.77% as compared with unweeded treatment 50 and 70 days after sowing (DAS) followed by Butraline (93.93–94.65%), Bentazon + Clethodium (93.26–94.07%), Bentazon + Fluazifop--P-butyl (91.82–92.77%) and leaf extract of Eucalyptus at 25% (91.61–91.95%). Furthermore, the reduction in weed development was accompanied by enhanced pea growth and yield. The results revealed that two hand hoeing was the best treatment to increase plant height, shoot dry weight and SPAD value at 50 and 70 DAS. Also, two hand hoeing produced the maximum values of pod length and number of seeds/pod. The results also indicated that Bentazon + Clethodium treatment gave observable values [recorded 72.96% in pod yield (ton ⋅ fed.–1) over that of unweeded control] of number of pod/plant, weight of pod/plant, seed yield/fed and protein percentage. Also, the results revealed great increases in the growth of pea as well as yield due to treatment with E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25%. [recorded 64.8% in in pod yield (ton ⋅ fed.–1) over that of unweeded control]. So, the results indicated using Bentazon + Clethodium as well as E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25% to control weeds associated with pea plants. The authors suggested application of E. citriodora dry leaf extract at 25% in controlling weeds associated with pea plants as a safe method that avoids environmental contamination.
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Abstract

We used DPPH scavenging assays to study the antioxidant activity of three native Polish species of blackberry leaves (Rubus kuleszae Ziel., R. fabrimontanus (Sprib.) Sprib. and R. capitulatus Utsch.). All the studied extracts (methanolic, water, methanolic-water) showed high DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50 450.0-186.0 μg/ml). The most effective of the studied species was Rubus kuleszae. Total content of phenolic compounds (70.50-136.04 mg GAE/g) and phenolic acids (14.70-38.26 mg CAE/g) was determined spectrophotometrically. Antioxidant activity correlated positively with total content of phenolic compounds and phenolic acids.
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Abstract

This study investigates the acaricidal, ovicidal, and repellent effects of the Tagetes patula Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf extract against both the adult female and egg stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae) under laboratory conditions. The Tagetes patula ethanolic leaf extract [TpEtOH70%] was screened for adulticide and ovicide bioassays in order to consider its acute toxicity. One sublethal concentration was used to assess egg-laying capacity (fecundity), repellent, and oviposition deterrent activities. The chemical characterization was conducted by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis to identify the TpEtOH70% bioactive components. Results showed that the LC50 value of TpEtOH70% leaf extract predicted by Probit analysis against T. urticae adult females at 24 h was 0.99%. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract showed a significant toxic effect as the highest mean mortality rates (± SE) of the treated adult females was 88.9 ± 3.7%. However, the TpEtOH70% leaf extract was insignificant in affecting the egg-laying capacity of the adult females treated with a sublethal dose of 0.5% even after 72 h. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract was classified repellent since the repellent index (RI) value was lower than 1 – SD. In addition, it had a high oviposition deterring effect based on a 100% reduction of the total number of eggs. The TpEtOH70% leaf extract had a significant ovicidal effect on T. urticae eggs, with 56.04% reduction in hatching. Five bioactive compounds from various classes of phytochemicals were identified in the TpEtOH70% leaf extract and the major compound was phytol (62.72%). This pioneering investigation reveals the adulticidal, ovicidal, and repellent activities of the TpEtOH70% leaf extract against T. urticae. A combination of multiple modes of action of different plant components may act alone or in synergism to delay the development of mite resistance.
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