On the basis of the results of direct measurements, the conduction properties of the yearly behaviour of the halt flux conducted in the tundra soil (S) are determined. In general, the cooling period of the soil profile lasted from August to January, with highest intensity in October (S = —4.8 Wm-2). A rapid intensification of the heat exchange in the soil occurred in July (S = 7.4 Wm-2 ) . The 24-hour values of S were found to vary greatly (from 19 Wm-2 to 32 Wm-2). For chosen days, relationships were determined among the particular elements of the heat balance of the active layer.
The paper presents the results of studies of hybrid composite layers Ni/Al2O3/Cgraphite produced by the electrodeposition method. Three variants of hybrid composite layers were prepared in electrolyte solutions with the same amounts of each dispersion phases which were equal to 0.25; 0.50 and 0.75 g/dm3. The structure of Ni/Al2O3/Cgraphite layers as well as the Al2O3 and graphite powders, which were used as dispersion phases was investigated. The results of morphology and surface topography of produced layers are presented. The modulus of elasticity and microhardness of the material of produced layers were determined by DSI method. Tribological and corrosion resistance tests of produced layers were carried out. Realized studies have shown that the material of the produced layers is characterized by a nanocrystalline structure. Incorporation of dispersion phases into the nickiel matrix increases the degree of surface development of layers. Ni/Al2O3/Cgraphite layers are characterized by high hardness and abrasion resistance by friction, furthermore, they provide good corrosion protection for the substrate material.
The purpose of the paper is to outline a systematic and unified non-local treatment of mode conversion effects associated with an interface superlattice being a 2D pseudo-array composed of altered phase inclusions (exemplified by impurity clusters) and located at a solid-solid plane interface. It will be illustrated, in some detail, for the instructive case of a Stoneley type acoustic wave (SW), incident on a periodically nonhomogeneous portion of an interface and partly transformed into bulk modes propagating in one of the component solid. An analytical model scheme is constructed, using a variational method combined with the T matrix approach, appropriate for the 2D periodic array treated, and decaying into the depth of this solid for the structure in a way determined by the array geometry and element 3D profiles as well as the boundary conditions at the interface. An apodization (weighting) to reduce the side-lobes level is incorporated into the structure by appropriately varying lateral dimensions and the depth of particular scatterers.
In this paper, flysch is presented as a representative material of a wide section of the Carpathian Mountains, with some areas in Poland highlighted. The geological structure of this area is complex due to the alternating layers of blocky rock masses and soil (Vessia et al., 2017). Such a complex pattern is seen in some Alpine flysch slopes, such as the Ingelsberg landslide area (Romeo et al., 2015). Many authors are monitored, predicted landslides (Allasia et al., 2013; Bertacchini et al., 2009; Casagli et al., 2010) by sophisticated sensors. The rock-soil flysch successions have become intensively fissured as a result of their geological history, weathering (precipitation and snowmelt), and long-term water retention, especially on the surface layers. These complex materials are characterised by heterogeneous lithologies, whose mechanical properties are largely uncertain. These geological structures have also been confirmed by monitoring and control studies performed on a large number of landslides (Bednarczyk, 2014). One of the most striking phenomena is the sudden decrease in the strength parameters in the studied rocks in the direction parallel to the layers due to watering. The process is made possible by heterogeneous fractured strong rock layers with high permeability coefficients for water. This study precisely describes the phenomena occurring at the contact area between the component layers of flysch under the wet conditions of a weak plane. An elastic-plastic analysis method that considers the developed strength model at the surfaces of the contact areas (Biernatowski & Pula, 1988; Pula, 1997) has been used to estimate the load capacity for piles working under a horizontal load. The piles are part of a reliability chain (Pula, 1997) in a given construction and are the first element of concern for monitoring (Muszynski & Rybak, 2017). A particular device intended to study the dependence of the shear stress on a fixed failure surface in a controlled consolidation condition was utilized. The study was conducted for a wide range of displacements and for different values of stabilized vertical stresses of consolidation. The complexity of the processes occurring in the shear zone, presented as a detailed study of the material crack mechanics, is highlighted. The laboratory results were used to construct the mechanical model of the slip surface between the soil and rock with the description supported by a neural network (NN) approximation. The artificial NN was created as a multi-layered, easy to use approach for interpreting results and for quick reconstruction of approximated values useful for the calculations presented in laterally loaded piles. For the calculations, long, sheared strips of material were considered in a semi-analytical procedure to solve a differential equation of stability. The calculations are intended to reveal the safety indexes for a wide range of boundary tasks as the most significant indicator for design decisions.
Rock excavation is a basic technological operation during tunnelling and drilling roadways in underground mines. Tunnels and roadways in underground mines are driven into a rock mass, which in the particular case of sedimentary rocks, often have a layered structure and complicated tectonics. For this reason, rock strata often have highly differentiated mechanical properties, diverse deposition patterns and varied thicknesses in the cross sections of such headings. In the field of roadheader technology applied to drilling headings, the structure of a rock mass is highly relevant when selecting the appropriate cutting method for the heading face. Decidedly differentiated values of the parameters which describe the mechanical properties of a particular rock layer deposited in the cross section of the drilled tunnel heading will influence the value and character of the load on the cutting system, generated by the cutting process, power demand, efficiency and energy consumption of the cutting process. The article presents a mathematical modelling process for cutting a layered structure rock mass with the transverse head of a boom-type roadheader. The assumption was made that the rock mass being cut consists of a certain number of rock layers with predefined mechanical properties, a specific thickness and deposition pattern. The mathematical model created was executed through a computer programme. It was used for analysing the impact deposition patterns of rock layers with varied mechanical properties, have on the amount of cutting power consumed and load placed on a roadheader cutting system. The article presents an example of the results attained from computer simulations. They indicate that variations in the properties of the rock cut – as cutting heads are moving along the surface of the heading face – may have, apart from multiple other factors, a significant impact on the value of the power consumed by the cutting process.
The paper presents the results of numerical simulation of processes aimed at production of nanostructures with the use of oil emulsions in water. The appropriate molecular models of water and oil, as well as the model of the substance which would sediment at the water – oil interface, are looked for. Such substance, after suitable solidification, would become the main component of the produced material. For the described simulations, the Molecular Dynamics method has been used throughout this paper.
The article describes the impact of germanium on the course of surface phenomena in casting alloys of silver used in gold smithing. The aim of this works is to describe the assessment of resulting alloys, comparing the area of raw castings and the impact of the addition content of the alloy on the hardness of the samples. The evaluation also was subject to corrosion resistance of giving a comparison of their use in relations to traditional silver alloys.
Before disassemble and demolition of five granulation towers the authors planned and carried out measurements of the intensity of vibrations induced during the fall of the dismantled components of towers on the ground. The main aim of the study was to determine the maximum permissible weight of falling elements of the towers during the demolition, in terms of ensuring the protection of buildings and equipment located in the vicinity of the works. It was unacceptable to increase the vibration amplitude displacement in each section of measurement on each of the three perpendicular axes by more than 2 μm peak-to-peak value and the absolute velocity of RMS of vibration amplitude couldn’t be increased by more than 1 mm/sec value than the background vibration during the demolition of the towers. Preliminary experimental studies were conducted on a test stand and the measurements were made on the real object. The amplitudes of vibration waves displacement and velocity were recorded on the measurement section in the direction of the protected building. The results of measurements were used to identify the propagation of the shock wave and the effectiveness of the proposed insulation layers.
There is a considerable increase in the use of noise barriers in recent years. Noise barriers as a control noise solution can increase the insertion loss to protect receivers. This paper presents the results of an investigation about the acoustic efficiency of primitive root sequence diffuser (PRD) on an environmental single T-shape barrier design. A 2D boundary element method (BEM) is used to predict the insertion loss of the tested barriers. The results of rigid and with a different sequence diffuser coverage are also predicted for comparison. Employing PRD on the top surface of T-shape barrier has been found to improve the performance of barriers in comparison with the use of rigid and QRD coverage at the examined receiver locations. It has been found that decreasing the design frequency of PRD shifts the frequency effects towards lower frequencies, and therefore the overall A-weighted insertion loss is improved. It was also found that using wire mesh with reasonably efficient resistivity on the top surface of PRD improves the efficiency of the reactive barriers; however utilizing wire meshes with flow resistivity higher than the specific acoustic impedance of air on the PRD top of a diffuser barrier significantly reduces the performance of the barrier within the frequency bandwidth of the diffuser. The performance of a PRD covered T-shape barrier at 200 Hz was found to be higher than that of its equivalent QRD barriers in both the far field and in areas close to the ground. The amount of improvement compared made by PRD barrier compared with its equivalent rigid barrier at far field is about 2 to 3 dB, while this improvement relative to the barrier model "QR4" can reach up to 4-6 dB.
Modified Bohm’s formalism was applied to solve the problem of abstruse layer depth profiles measured by the Auger electron spectroscopy technique in real physical systems. The desorbed carbon/passive layer on an NiTi substrate and the adsorbed oxygen/ surface of an NiTi alloy were studied. It was shown that the abstruse layer profiles can be converted to real layer structures using the modified Bohm’s theory, where the quantum potential is due to the Auger electron effect. It is also pointed out that the stationary probability density predicts the multilayer structures of the abstruse depth profiles that are caused by the carbon desorption and oxygen adsorption processes. The criterion for a kind of break or “cut” between the physical and unphysical multilayer systems was found. We conclude with the statement that the physics can also be characterised by the abstruse measurement and modified Bohm’s formalism.
In this study, we investigate the mechanical behavior of each skin layer, in terms of the nominal stress-strain curve by uniaxial tensile tests using specimens of porcine skin in two forms: dermis containing epidermis, and all three layers. All tests were performed under cyclic loading at the constant strain rate of 10–3 s–1 at ambient temperature. To measure the precise initial cross-sectional areas of each layer, the thickness of each skin layer was quantified by counting the number of pixels on the photo-image using image-processing software. In the tensile test, force-strain curves of the total skin and dermis with epidermis were obtained. Subsequently, a rule of mixtures was applied to determine the nonlinear mechanical properties of the hypodermis layer. In conclusion, we could define the uniaxial tensile behavior of the hypodermis, and additionally predict the weight effect of the dermis and hypodermis layers in the tensile test.
Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on porcine skin to investigate the tensile stress-strain constitutive characteristic at quasistatic deformations using uniaxial tensile tests. Experimental results were then used to determine the parameters of the various constitutive model types for rubber, including the Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, Ogden, and others. The Prony series viscoelastic model was also calibrated based on the stress relaxation test. To investigate the calibrated constitutive equations (visco-hyperelastic), the falling impact test was conducted. From the viewpoint of the maximum impact load, the error was approximately 15.87%. Overall, the Ogden model predicted the experimental measurements most reasonably. The calibrated constitutive model is expected to be of practical use in describing the mechanical properties of porcine skin.
The work presents a computer simulation realized with the ADINA program concerning nanoindendation test. A shape of nanoindenter was proposed to be similar to the real surgical tools. The theoretical model was used to predict phenomena which would appear in practice. The contribution of the TiN coating thickness to the implant rigid properties was simulated. Three types of extortion conditions could be considered, i.e., short contact with surgery tool (i); long continuous contact with natural tissue (ii); long cyclic contact with natural tissue (iii). In the first part of the work, the authors focused on the first type of extortion (i). The second part of the work is dedicated to the calculations of temperature impact to layer behaviour. Two layer thicknesses are considered i.e., 250 nm and 50 nm. The examined coatings find serious practical applications as a blood-contacting material in medicine. The coatings were subjected to transmission electron microscopy investigations. Columnar mechanism of film growth controlled by kinetic process is stated to operate for the considered range of layer thickness. Plasma temperature is observed to influence the substrate behaviour. Examinations of thinner layers, i.e. under 100nm, revealed higher degree of smoothness and uniformity, which could be related to the operation of the surface diffusion mechanism at the early stage of deposition. The physical explanation of TEM images was based on the finite element calculations of the temperature distribution using the ADINA program .
Al- and Al/Zn-enriched layers containing intermetallic phases were deposited on the Mg substrate by heating the Mg specimens in contact with the powdered materials in a vacuum furnace. The Al-enriched surface layers were produced using Al powder, whereas the Al/Znenriched layers were obtained from an 80 wt.% Al + 20 wt.% Zn powder mixture. The microstructure and composition of the layers were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the Al-enriched layer comprised an Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase and a solid solution of Al in Mg. The layer obtained from the Al+Zn powder mixture was composed of Mg-Al-Zn intermetalic phases and a solid solution of Al and Zn in Mg. Adding 20% of Zn into the Al powder resulted in the formation of a considerably thicker layer. Moreover, the hardness of the surface layers was much higher than that of the Mg substrate.
The new legislative provisions, regulating the trade in solid fuels in our country, draw attention to the need to develop and improve methods and methods of managing hard coal sludge. The aim of the work was to show whether filtration parameters (mainly the permeability coefficient) of hard coal sludge are sufficient for construction of insulating layers in landfills at the stage of their closing and what is the demand for material in the case of such a procedure. The analysis was carried out for landfills for municipal waste in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie provinces. For hard coal sludge, the permeability coefficient values are in the range of 10–8–10–11 m/s, with the average value of 3.16 × 10–9 m/s. It can be concluded that this material generally meets the criteria of tightness for horizontal and often vertical flows. When compaction, increasing load or mixing with fly ash from hard coal combustion and clays, the achieved permeability coefficient often lowers its values. Based on the analysis, it can be assumed that hard coal sludge can be used to build mineral insulating barriers. At the end of 2016, 50 municipal landfills were open in the Opolskie, Śląskie and Małopolskie Provinces. Only 36 of them have obtained the status of a regional installation, close to 1/3 of the municipal landfill are within the Major Groundwater Basin (MGB) range. The remaining storage sites will be designated for closure. Assuming the necessity to close all currently active municipal waste landfills, the demand for hard coal sludge amounts to a total of 1,779,000 m3 which, given the assumptions, gives a mass of 2,704,080 Mg. The total amount of hard coal sludge production is very high in Poland. Only two basic mining groups annually produce a total of about 1,500,000 Mg of coal sludge. The construction of insulating layers in landfills of inert, hazardous and non-hazardous and inert wastes is an interesting solution. Such an application is prospective, but it will not solve the problem related to the production and management of this waste material as a whole. It is important to look for further solutions.
In this paper, a new Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP NN) classifier is proposed for classifying sonar targets and non-targets from the acoustic backscattered signals. Besides the capabilities of MLP NNs, it uses Back Propagation (BP) and Gradient Descent (GD) for training; therefore, MLP NNs face with not only impertinent classification accuracy but also getting stuck in local minima as well as lowconvergence speed. To lift defections, this study uses Adaptive Best Mass Gravitational Search Algorithm (ABGSA) to train MLP NN. This algorithm develops marginal disadvantage of the GSA using the bestcollected masses within iterations and expediting exploitation phase. To test the proposed classifier, this algorithm along with the GSA, GD, GA, PSO and compound method (PSOGSA) via three datasets in various dimensions will be assessed. Assessed metrics include convergence speed, fail probability in local minimum and classification accuracy. Finally, as a practical application assumed network classifies sonar dataset. This dataset consists of the backscattered echoes from six different objects: four targets and two non-targets. Results indicate that the new classifier proposes better output in terms of aforementioned criteria than whole proposed benchmarks.
This paper presents the research studies carried out on the application of lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to computational aeroacoustics (CAA). The Navier-Stokes equation-based solver faces the difficulty of computational efficiency when it has to satisfy the high-order of accuracy and spectral resolution. LBM shows its capabilities in direct and indirect noise computations with superior space-time resolution. The combination of LBM with turbulence models also work very well for practical engineering machinery noise. The hybrid LBM decouples the discretization of physical space from the discretization of moment space, resulting in flexible mesh and adjustable time-marching. Moreover, new solving strategies and acoustic models are developed to further promote the application of LBM to CAA.
In the process of extraction and enrichment of coal waste, considerable quantities of waste material are produced, mainly the gangue and coal sludge, considered as waste or raw material. The main directions of the management development of the waste rock are the production of aggregates, the production of energy products and the liquidation works in hard coal mines and the filling of excavations. The paper proposes the extension of these activities to the use of waste material. The possibility of using aggregates or extractive waste to fill open-pit excavations has been proposed, also in areas within the reach of groundwater and the possibility of building insulation layers of waste material and the production of mixtures of hard coal sludge and sewage sludge to produce material with good energy properties. The analysis was based on the author’s own research and literature data related to selected parameters of waste material. This paper presents our own preliminary studies on the amount of combustion heat and the calorific value of coal sludge combined with other wastes such as sewage sludge. The proposed methods and actions are part of the current directions of development, but they allow the extension of the scope of use of both extractive waste and products produced on the basis of gangue or coal sludge. Due to the frequent lack of the stable composition of these materials, their current properties should be assessed each time before attempting to use them. The fact that it is important to continue research to promote existing economic use and to seek new activities or methods has been concluded.
In the extra-thick coal seams and multi-layered hard roofs, the longwall hydraulic support yielding, coal face spalling, strong deformations of goaf-side entry, and severe ground pressure dynamic events typically occur at the longwall top coal caving longwall faces. Based on the Key strata theory an overburden caving model is proposed here to predict the multilayered hard strata behaviour. The proposed model together with the measured stress changes in coal seam and underground observations in Tongxin coal mine provides a new idea to analyse stress changes in coal and help to minimise rock bursts in the multi-layered hard rock ground. Using the proposed primary Key and the sub-Key strata units the model predicts the formation and instability of the overlying strata that leads to abrupt dynamic changes to the surrounding rock stress. The data obtained from the vertical stress monitoring in the 38 m wide coal pillar located adjacent to the longwall face indicates that the Key strata layers have a significant influence on ground behaviour. Sudden dynamically driven unloading of strata was caused by the first caving of the sub-Key strata while reloading of the vertical stress occurred when the goaf overhang of the sub-Key strata failed. Based on this findings several measures were recommended to minimise the undesirable dynamic occurrences including pre-split of the hard Key strata by blasting and using the energy consumption yielding reinforcement to support the damage prone gate road areas. Use of the numerical modelling simulations was suggested to improve the key theory accuracy.
A spinal code is the type of rateless code, which has been proved to be capacity- achieving over both a binary symmetric channel (BSC) and an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. Rateless spinal codes employ a hash function as a coding kernel to generate infinite pseudo-random symbols. A good hash function can improve the perfor- mance of spinal codes. In this paper, a lightweight hash function based on sponge structure is designed. A permutation function of registers is a nonlinear function. Feedback shift registers are used to improve randomness and reduce bit error rate (BER). At the same time, a pseudo-random number generator adopts a layered and piecewise combination mode, which further encrypts signals via the layered structure, reduces the correlation between input and output values, and generates the piecewise random numbers to compensate the shortcoming of the mixed linear congruence output with fixed length. Simulation results show that the designed spinal code with the lightweight hash function outperforms the original spinal code in aspects of the BER, encoding time and randomness.
A hybrid artificial boundary condition (HABC) that combines the volume-based acoustic damping layer (ADL) and the local face-based characteristic boundary condition (CBC) is presented to enhance the absorption of acoustic waves near the computational boundaries. This method is applied to the prediction of aerodynamic noise from a circular cylinder immersed in uniform compressible viscous flow. Different ADLs are designed to assess their effectiveness whereby the effect of the mesh-stretch direction on wave absorption in the ADL is analysed. Large eddy simulation (LES) and FW-H acoustic analogy method are implemented to predict the far-field noise, and the sensitivities of each approach to the HABC are compared. In the LES computed propagation field of the fluctuation pressure and the frequency-domain results, the spurious reflections at edges are found to be significantly eliminated by the HABC through the effective dissipation of incident waves along the wave-front direction in the ADL. Thereby, the LES results are found to be in a good agreement with the acoustic pressure predicted using FW-H method, which is observed to be just affected slightly by reflected waves.
This paper presents signal processing aspects for automatic segmentation of retinal layers of the human eye. The paper draws attention to the problems that occur during the computer image processing of images obtained with the use of the Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD OCT). Accuracy of the retinal layer segmentation for a set of typical 3D scans with a rather low quality was shown. Some possible ways to improve quality of the final results are pointed out. The experimental studies were performed using the so-called B-scans obtained with the OCT Copernicus HR device.
A review is given on a number of colloidal phenomena with special reference to their applicability to nanoparticles. Phenomena addressed include preparation, electric double layers and their characterization, electrokinetics, van der Waals and Lifshits forces, electric and steric particle interaction.