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Number of results: 8
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Abstract

The paper focuses on the modelling of bromate formation. An axial dispersion model was proposed to integrate the non-ideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions fromthe Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon (TFG) ozone decaymodelwith direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organicmatter and its reactionswith aqueous bromine. To elucidate the role of ammonia an additional set of reactions leading to bromamine formation, oxidation and disproportionation was incorporated in the kinetic model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to obtain information on reliability of the reaction rate constants used and to simplify the model.
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Abstract

Validation results of a theoretical model that describes the formation of bromate during ozonation of bromide-containing natural waters are presented. An axial dispersion model integrating the nonideal mixing, mass-transfer and a kinetic model that links ozone decomposition reactions from the Tomiyasu, Fukutomi and Gordon ozone decay model with direct and indirect bromide oxidation reactions, oxidation of natural organicmatter and reactions of dissolved organics and aqueous bromine was verified. Themodel was successfully validated with results obtained both at a laboratory and a full scale. Its applicability to different water supply systems was approved.
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Abstract

In this study a group of selected transformation kinetics equations is applied to describe the isothermal ferritic transformation in austempered ductile iron (ADI). A series of dilatometric tests has been carried out on ADI at different temperatures. The obtained experimental data are utilized to determine the parameter values of the considered kinetic equations. It is found that the transformation kinetics models by Starink, Austin and Rickett are substantially more effective at describing the ferritic transformation in ADI than the much celebrated Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that evaluating the kinetic parameters using the least squares method instead of calculating them from vastly used formulas can significantly improve the accuracy of the JMAK model’s predictions.
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Abstract

The quantitative description of an airlift bioreactor, in which aerobic biodegradation limited by carbonaceous substrate and oxygen dissolved in a liquid takes place, is presented. This process is described by the double-substrate kinetics. Mathematical models based on the assumption of plug flow and dispersion flow of liquid through the riser and the downcomer in the reactor were proposed. Calculations were performed for two representative hydrodynamic regimes of reactor operation, i.e. with the presence of gas bubbles only within the riser and for complete gas circulation. The analysis aimed at how the choice of a mathematical model of the process would enable detecting the theoretical occurrence of oxygen deficiency in the airlift reactor. It was demonstrated that the simplification of numerical calculations by assuming the “plug flow” model instead of dispersion with high Péclet numbers posed a risk of improper evaluation of the presence of oxygen deficiency zones. Conclusions related to apparatusmodelling and process design were drawn on the basis of the results obtained. The paper is a continuation of an earlier publication (Grzywacz, 2012a) where an analysis of single-substrate models of the airlift reactor was presented.
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Abstract

Kinetic resolution of (R)- and (S)-mandelic acid by its transesterification with vinyl acetate catalysed by Burholderia cepacia lipase has been studied. The influence of the initial substrate concentration on the kinetics of process has been investigated. A modified ping-pong bi-bi model of enzymatic transesterification of (S)-mandelic acid including substrate inhibition has been developed. The values of kinetic parameters of the model have been estimated. We have shown that the inhibition effect revealed over a certain threshold limit value of the initial concentration of substrate.
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Abstract

Balance, thermodynamic and mainly kinetic approaches using methods of process engineering enable to determine conditions under which iron technology can actually work in limiting technological states, at the lowest reachable fuel consumption (reducing factor) and the highest reachable productivity accordingly. Kinetic simulation can be also used for variant prognostic calculations. The paper deals with thermodynamics and kinetics of iron making process. It presents a kinetic model of iron oxide reduction in a low temperature area. In the experimental part it deals with testing of iron ore feedstock properties. The theoretical and practical limits determined by heat conditions, feedstock reducibility and kinetics of processes are calculated.
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Abstract

The use of torrefied biomass as a substitute for untreated biomass may decrease some technological barriers that exist in biomass co-firing technologies e.g. low grindability, high moisture content, low energy density and hydrophilic nature of raw biomass. In this study the TG-MS-FTIR analysis and kinetic analysis of willow (Salix viminalis L.) and samples torrefied at 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300 °C (TSWE 200, 220, 240, 260, 280 and 300), were performed. The TG-DTG curves show that in the case of willow and torrefied samples TSWE 200, 220, 240 and 260 there are pyrolysis and combustion stages, while in the case of TSWE 280 and 300 samples the peak associated with the pyrolysis process is negligible, in contrast to the peak associated with the combustion process. Analysis of the TG-MS results shows m/z signals of 18, 28, 29 and 44, which probably represent H2O, CO and CO2. The gaseous products were generated in two distinct ranges of temperature. H2O, CO and CO2 were produced in the 500 K to 650 K range with maximum yields at approximately 600 K. In the second range of temperature, 650 K to 800 K, only CO2 was produced with maximum yields at approximately 710 K as a main product of combustion process. Analysis of the FTIR shows that the main gaseous products of the combustion process were H2O, CO2, CO and some organics including bonds: C=O (acids, aldehydes and ketones), C=C (alkenes, aromatics), C-O-C (ethers) and C-OH. Lignin mainly contributes hydrocarbons (3000-2800 cm−1), while cellulose is the dominant origin of aldehydes (2860-2770 cm−1) and carboxylic acids (1790-1650 cm−1). Hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones and various acids were also generated from hemicellulose (1790-1650 cm−1). In the kinetic analysis, the two-steps first order model (F1F1) was assumed. Activation energy (Ea) values for the first stage (pyrolysis) increased with increasing torrefaction temperature from 93 to 133 kJ/mol, while for the second stage (combustion) it decreased from 146 to 109 kJ/mol for raw willow, as well as torrefied willow at the temperature range of 200-260°C. In the case of samples torrefied at 280 and 300°C, the Ea values of the first and second stage were comparable to Ea of untreated willow and torrefied at 200°C. It was also found that samples torrefied at a higher temperature, had a higher ignition point and also a shorter burning time.
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Abstract

Reduction of three industrial nickel oxides (Goro, Tokyo and Sinter 75) with a hydrogen bearing gas was revisited in the temperature interval from 523 to 673 K (250 to 400°C). A pronounced incubation period is observed in the temperature interval tested. This period decreases as the reduction temperature increases. Thermogravimetric data of these oxides were fitted using the Avrami-Erofeyev kinetic model. The reduction of these oxides is controlled by a nucleation and growth mechanism of metallic nickel over the oxides structure. Rate kinetic constants were re-evaluated and the activation energy for the reduction of these oxides was re-calculated.
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