Despite significant changes of a political, legal and economic nature, despite clearly expressed intentions, the natural environment of most areas of Europe is further degraded. Therefore, it is necessary to adopt effective solutions, and one of the possibilities of determining the directions of support is the pro-ecological nature of the regional innovation strategy, which will allow transfer of much larger funds to support eco-innovation. The work is a case study. The aim of the research presented in this work is to show the relationship between the provisions of the Regional Innovation Strategy of the Podkarpackie Voivodeship for 2014-2020 for intelligent specialization (RIS3), and the assumptions of the five-helix concept, and the justifi cation for its use in future, in the form of a developed regional eco-innovation strategy.
The aim of the paper is to elaborate hypotheses concerning path development of regions and breaking out of existing paths, with emphasis on less developed regions. The findings show that changing the development paths may be caused mainly by evolutionary process and shocks play rather substitutional role in this phenomenon. Also, the higher a region is exposed and aff ected by an event, the more short-term adaptation abilities it has. Findings are unambiguous when we wanted to confi rm whether path dependence leads to specialisation of the economy and whether over-specialisation dampens innovativeness since innovations in most industries are related to locations with diverse urban base. However, findings are clear about breaking out of path dependency by less developed regions. We identify examples of less developed regions that changed their development paths despite the dependence on several declining industries. This has been achieved through the appropriate policy pursued by the regional authorities, the very good preparation and education of human capital. Thus, good regional strategy, including innovation strategy could be the leading point in breaking out of path dependency for less developed regions.