The article presents the architectural heritage created as a part of the Central Industrial District in the context of the need for its preservation and protection. Presented are selected topics and problems associated with the current technical condition of both industrial and residential buildings. The analysis contain also the impact of modern conservation doctrines and their ability to preserve works of COP’s architecture with the specific conditions of ownership, poor awareness of users and owners, and a large shortage of historical planning sources.
Mineral fillers are mainly utilized in the production of printing and writing papers (P&W) to improve their optical features and their vulnerability to printing. With the high cost of pulp, the aim of their introduction has been to increase mineral loading in paper and reduce the overall cost of production. For many years the only method of paper formation was acid technology, while the only raw material of choice for filling and coating paper and cardboard was kaolin (in the beginning of the 1970s it was 80% of fillers and 94% of coating grades used in Western Europe, while in the USA – 92% and 96%, respectively). The onset on new methods of acid-free (alkaline) paper forming caused a drastic reduction in the kaolin demand for cost-competitive calcium carbonate: GCC – Ground Calcium Carbonate) and PCC – Precipitated Calcium Carbonate. This also resulted from the progressive self-destruction of machine-made acid papers. In 2013, the share of calcium carbonate in the total production of fillers was 83%, while kaolin accounted for 10%, and talc – 7%. The article presents the parameters of principal mineral fillers for the paper industry and the main reasons why they are suitable for particular kinds of paper. Kaolin, due to the platy nature of its main mineral constituent – kaolinite, is preferred in multiple coating papers. The choice of GCC is beneficial because of its low price and properties (especially whiteness). PCC , due to the possibility of shape and particle size modification serves as filler in uncoated woodfree papers, the key features of which are expected to be lightness and opacity. Size distribution is the main difference between PCC and GCC . The article also presents tendencies observed over the last several years in the paper market in Poland, i.e. in a significant growth in coated paper and board for packaging, as well as the decreasing demand for newspaper, which is a consequence of progressive digitalization.
The worldwide consumption of wollastonite has been increasing from day to day. It is a calcium metasilicate with the chemical formula CaSiO3. Wollastonite is the only naturally occurring, nonmetallic, white mineral that is needle-shaped in a crystal habit. Due to its high chemical and thermal resistance and nontoxic properties, wollastonite replaces asbestos. Apart from this, the acicular property of wollastonite allow it to compete with other acicular materials where improvements in dimensional stability, flexural modulus and heat deflection are sought. Due to its unique properties such as: its high brightness and whiteness, low moisture and oil absorption, low volatile content, and acicular properties, it is used also as a filling material for ceramics, plastics and paints, thermal and electrical insulator, wetting agent and smelter for glaze. Three methods are used for the beneficiation of wollastonite: mechanical sorting, dry or wet magnetic separation and flotation. Magnetic separation and flotation can be applied together in some cases. In this study, flotation has been investigated for the selective separation of calcite-rich wollastonite ores from the Buzlukdağ deposit, in the Kırşehir-Akpınar region, in the middle of Anatolia. The mineralogical analysis of the sample used in the study shows that the ore sample contains 60–62% wollastonite (CaSiO3), 4–5% augite (Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Si,Al)2O6, 30–32% calcite (CaCO3) and minor amount of other minerals. As a result of this study, the wollastonite concentrate which contains 0.44% Fe2O3, 52.71% SiO2, 87.85% wollastonite with 0.60% loss on ignition (using 1500 g/t potassium oleate) was obtained. The ultimate grade concentrates of calcite that can also be obtained as by-products are with 99.80% calcite content and 85.4% recovery.
The article presents the representative examples of modernist villas built as a part of patronage housing estates raised during the erection of the Central Industrial District. The author describes building’s functional solutions and their architectural shape and highlight their role in urban systems. Analysis of selected examples characterize mechanisms of creative processes as well as the associations which influenced their forming. The villas from the areas of the most important COP’s investments have similar ideological architectural workshop, despite differences in their formal appear. Their aesthetic, functional and esthetic attributes are part of a multi-dimensional architectural heritage of the Central Industrial District.
The extraction of mineral deposits is usually charged with additional taxes or royalty fees that go beyond the general income tax. As a rule, countries prefer stable sources of fiscal revenues based on the volume of raw material extraction, and investors prefer models based on profit tax, i.e. taking operating costs and risks lower than the expected profitability of the project into account. As a rule, too high a burden for the mining sector affects investors’ decisions regarding the introduction of new investments. There are a number of examples where excessive fiscal burdens force investors to move to countries with more favorable tax systems. An analysis of various forms of taxation of mining enterprises around the world has been presented and compared with the system implemented in Poland. Usually, the countries that apply the royalty fee in the mining sector at the same time introduce a number of adaptation mechanisms. This is crucial for new investments due to the fact that they may to some extent compensate for the high costs of transition from the investment to the operational phase. In most cases, several incentive mechanisms are used at the same time, e.g. the accelerated settlement of investment expenditures and the unlimited settlement of losses. The copper and silver mining tax introduced in Poland increased the discounted effective tax rate (ETR) from 38.5% to 89% for the entire investment period, which resulted in a 11-year return on investment, as well as a drop in the internal rate of return (IRR).There are currently no mechanisms in Poland which would balance the burden of this tax for a new investor. In order to balance the extraction tax for certain minerals in terms of the IRR and ETR key indicators, the introduction of several adaptation mechanisms has been proposed. For new investments the most essential mechanism is the preferential settlement of capital expenditures incurred in the pre-production phase of an investment. The others include accelerated amortization, the ability to deduct certain expenses for the exploration phase from the tax base, along with an extended tax loss settlement period, or a mechanism for deducting a certain percentage of investment expenses directly from the tax.
This paper points out assumptions and reasons for using digital technologies, the importance of using digital technologies in teaching and management. It also refers to the digital technologies and digital competences as an essential part of the competency model of a teaching staff in education. It also points out the fact that existing competency models need to be further explored, decomposed, and formulated as an illustration by the digital competences extensions.
The article presents the issue of calibration and verification of an original module, which is a part of the robotic turbojet engines elements processing station. The task of the module is to measure turbojet engine compressor blades geometric parameters. These type of devices are used in the automotive and the machine industry, but here we present their application in the aviation industry. The article presents the idea of the module, operation algorithm and communication structure with elements of a robot station. The module uses Keyence GT2-A32 contact sensors. The presented information has an application nature. Functioning of the module and the developed algorithm has been tested, the obtained results are satisfactory and ensure sufficient process accuracy. Other station elements include a robot with force control, elements connected to grinding such as electrospindles, and security systems.
Falling film, shell-tube type evaporators are commonly used heat exchangers for the production of fruit juice concentrate. The main problem in the design of the exchanger is a reliable estimation of wall heat transfer coefficients for all effects in real operating conditions. Most literature sources for the overall heat transfer coefficients are based on laboratory measurements, where the tubes are usually short, no fouling exists and the flow rate is carefully adjusted. This paper shows the heat transfer estimated in real industrial operating conditions, compared to literature sources. Paper is based on the author’s own experience in designing and launching several evaporators for juice concentrate production into operation. As a summary, the design heat transfer coefficients are provided with relation to sugar content in juice concentrate.
In the article problems related to human labor and factors affecting the increasing use of industrial robots are discussed. Since human factors affect the production processes stability, robots are preferred to apply. The application of robots is characterized by higher performance and reliability comparing to human labor. The problem is how to determine the real difference in work efficiency between human operator and robot. The aim of the study is to develop a method that allows clearly definition of productivity growth associated with the replacement of human labor by industrial robots. Another aim of the paper is how to model robotized and manual operated workstation in a computer simulation software. Analysis of the productivity and reliability of the hydraulic press workstation operated by the human operator or an industrial robot, are presented. Simulation models have been developed taking into account the availability and reliability of the machine, operator and robot. We apply OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) indicator to present how availability and reliability parameters influence over performance of the workstation, in the longer time. Simplified financial analysis is presented considering different labor costs in EU countries.
This paper introduces the Lean School, a Learning Factory, along with a “game” of physical simulation that is developed in it. All this is focused on teaching-learning, both of students and professionals, of the potential advantages offered by the implementation of the Lean Production in the organizations. The participants gain a practical experience, based on experimental learning, which gives them a better understanding of the principles and tools of Lean philosophy. This physical environment is not limited to theoretical teaching, but goes beyond and implements a production system near a real one. It starts from a configuration of a production plant with an unbalanced system and throughout the different iterations, called productions, introduces and implement the Lean principles, which makes its participants acquire not only knowledge but also the skills needed to implement an efficient production in their organizations. All the constituent elements of the system will be described briefly: the product, the variations thereof, the initial design with its layout, as well as the subsequent productions, and the results of learning of each one.
Environmental risks associated with Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in street dust collected from Baotou, a medium-sized industrial city in a semi-arid area of northwest China, were assessed by using enrichment factor and the potential ecological index. Their spatial distributions and sources in the dust were analyzed on the basis of geostatistical methods and multivariate statistical analysis, respectively. The results indicate that street dust in Baotou has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Co in the dust was significantly enriched. Cr and Pb were from moderate to significant enrichment. Cu and Zn were from minimal to moderate enrichment, whereas Mn, Ni and V in the dust were from deficient to minimal enrichment. The ecological risk levels of Co and Pb in the dust were moderate to considerable and low to moderate, respectively, whereas those of other heavy metals studied in the dust presented low ecological risk. Different distribution patterns were found among the analyzed heavy metals. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. Cr, Mn, Ni and V originated from nature and industrial activities. Cu, Pb and Zn derived mainly from traffic sources, and Co was mainly from construction sources.
Industry 4.0 and the associated idea of society 4.0 pose specific challenges for the concept of sustainable development. These challenges relate, inter alia, to responsibility, in which the changes to date have overall entailed: • a transition from ex post responsibility to ex ante responsibility (H. Jonas); • a transition from individual responsibility to corporate social responsibility. In the context of society 4.0 there is a need for shared responsibility. The problem of justice and therefore the implementation of sustainable development not only becomes an open problem, but also requires constant updating and specifi c optimisation.
The article is a part of materials regarding current problems of Polish science and higher education. It provides an in-depth analysis of the Act on degrees and academic titles as well as several other laws which introduce the so-called Ph.D. implementation in Poland. These laws were adopted by the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in April 2017. The author focuses on several problems, discussing them in separate chapters. The article also tries to predict the far-reaching results of the new rules. At the same time, the author proposes specific solutions that should be included in the future in the Act on degrees and academic titles, or in the Act of industrial property. They should eliminate the negative effects of conflicts between the provisions of various legal acts.
One of the biggest problems for sand casting foundries must be the waste produced from disposable molds. Stricter environmental regulations make it harder to dispose of waste sand, so a truly competitive foundry does no longer only make great products, but also concentrates on a sustainable casting process. While methods for repurposing waste foundry sand are still limited, the internal circulation of such sands proves significant possibilities. This paper will focus on thermal reclamation of foundry sands in a special rotating drum furnace in a central facility to serve several foundries. Thermal reclamation is a process for handling foundry sands in elevated temperatures to combust unwanted substances from reusable base sand. The introduction focuses on background of the Finnish foundry business, the most common sand systems in Finland and their reclaim properties. The experimental part features presentation of the new reclamation plant process and the conducted test runs. The samples collected from each test run have been laboratory tested to assure proper sand quality. The results of this work showed that the reclamation of alkaline phenolic no-bake sands was excellent. Reclamation of green sands did not provide satisfactory results as expected and the reclamation of furan no-bake sands provided mixed results, as the raw material was imperfect to begin with. The most important result of this work is still the successful initiation of a centralized thermal reclamation plant, with the ability to reclaim sands of several foundries. With this all of industrial symbiosis, circular economy and sustainability advanced in Finland, and the future development of this plant provides even further opportunities and a possibility to spread the ideas on a global scale.
The main goal of this paper is to propose the probabilistic description of cyclical (business) fluctuations. We generalize a fixed deterministic cycle model by incorporating the time-varying amplitude. More specifically, we assume that the mean function of cyclical fluctuations depends on unknown frequencies (related to the lengths of the cyclical fluctuations) in a similar way to the almost periodic mean function in a fixed deterministic cycle, while the assumption concerning constant amplitude is relaxed. We assume that the amplitude associated with a given frequency is time-varying and is a spline function. Finally, using a Bayesian approach and under standard prior assumptions, we obtain the explicit marginal posterior distribution for the vector of frequency parameters. In our empirical analysis, we consider the monthly industrial production in most European countries. Based on the highest marginal data density value, we choose the best model to describe the considered growth cycle. In most cases, data support the model with a time-varying amplitude. In addition, the expectation of the posterior distribution of the deterministic cycle for the considered growth cycles has similar dynamics to cycles extracted by standard bandpass filtration methods.
The paper deals with the problem of the determination of the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the nitrification process of industrial wastewater, as well as its toxicity to the test organisms. The study on nitrification efficiency was performed using wastewater from one of Polish chemical factories. The chemical factory produces nitrogen fertilizers and various chemicals. The investigated wastewater was taken from the influent to the industrial mechanical-biological wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The WWTP guaranteed high removal efficiency of organic compounds defined as chemical oxygen demand (COD) but periodical failure of nitrification performance was noted in last years of the WWTP operation. The research aim was to establish the cause of recurring failures of nitrification process in the above mentioned WWTP. The tested wastewater was not acutely toxic to activated sludge microorganisms. However, the wastewater was genotoxic to activated sludge microorganisms and the genotoxicity was greater in winter than in spring time. Analysis of almost 3 years’ period of the WWTP operation data and laboratory batch tests showed that activated sludge from the WWTP under study is very sensitive to temperature changes and the nitrification efficiency collapses rapidly under 16°C. Additionally, it was calculated that in order to provide the stable nitrification, in winter period the sludge age (SRT) in the WWTP should be higher than 35 days.
The paper presents results of floristic investigation conducted within the territory of post-industrial spoil heaps connected with zinc and lead products manufacturing. The flora of specific technogenic habitats was analyzed with regard to geographical-historical groups and syntaxonomic classification. For each species, the following characteristics were determined: a life form according to the classification of Raunkiaer, means of seed spreading and types of mycorrhiza for each species based on the literature. On the two heaps, a total of 257 species of vascular plants belonging to 59 families were found. Only 92 species occurred on both sites, which is 36% of all plants recorded. The most numerous families are: Asteraceae (45 species) and Poaceae (28 species). Apophytes dominate in the flora of spoil heaps (70.9%). Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous group and therophytes are also abundant. Ruderal (belonging to Artemisietea vulgaris and Stelarietea mediae) and meadow species (belonging to Molino-Arrhenatheretea) dominate on both post-industrial dumps. Xerothermal species (belonging to Festuco-Brometea) are also fairly numerous (6.7%). Their presence is related to the specific habitat conditions. The anemochoric species dominate in the flora of dumps. The high proportion of mycorrhizal plants was recorded. Finally, reclamation interventions which were carried out on the H2 spoil heap are discussed.
In this paper, the PLC-based (Programmable Logic Controller) industrial implementation in the form of the general-purpose function block for ADRC (Active Disturbance Rejection Controller) is presented. The details of practical aspects are discussed because their reliable implementation is not trivial for higher order ADRC. Additional important novelties discussed in the paper are the impact of the derivative backoff and the method that significantly simplifies tuning of higher order ADRC by avoiding the usual trial and error procedure. The results of the practical validation of the suggested concepts complete the paper and show the potential industrial applicability of ADRC.