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Number of results: 16
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Abstract

Ore and non-ore mineralization in cracks filled with hydrocarbons in the dark grey Upper-Devonian limestone has been found in the Józefka quarry of Upper Devonian limestone and dolomite near the Górno village near Kielce at Holy Cross Mts. Poland. Hydrocarbons in the liquid form and iron and copper sulphides appears hear in the fault zone as joints filling. The wall rocks are impregnated by hydrocarbons giving them black color. Hydrocarbon impregnations appears also following the bedding planes The coexistence of ore mineralization and hydrocarbon suggests their common origin and migration from deep-seated sources, that may be the Silurian Ordovician or Lower to Middle Devonian black shales. The metallic-hydrocarbon compounds were suggested as metals carrier. Ore and non-ore mineralization in cracks filled with hydrocarbons in the dark grey Upper-Devonian limestone has been found in the Józefka quarry of Upper Devonian limestone and dolomite near the Górno village near Kielce at Holy Cross Mts. Poland. Hydrocarbons in the liquid form and iron and copper sulphides appears hear in the fault zone as joints filling. The wall rocks are spotty impregnated by hydrocarbons giving them black color. Hydrocarbon impregnations appears also following the bedding planes The coexistence of ore mineralization and hydrocarbon suggests their common origin and migration from deep-seated sources, that may be the Silurian Ordovician or Lower to Middle Devonian black shales. The metallic-hydrocarbon compounds were suggested as metals carrier.
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Abstract

In 1979- 1981 at the King George Island samples of adipose tissue of 5 pinniped species (L. carcinophagus, L. weddelli, H. leptonyx, M. leonina and A. gazella) were collected and the contents of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) were determined with the gas chromatography method. The highest values were recorded in the leopard seal (432.3 -614.7 ppb DDT), the second highest values in the mature elephant seal (73.4 ppb DDT) and the third in the Weddell seal (54.4 — 69.1 ppb DDT). In the Weddell seal the highest level of HCH content (23.3 — 32.1 ppb) was recorded. A decrease in the content of pp'DDE in the adipose tissue of crabeater seal in successive years was recorded, the values being 36.8 ppb in 1979, 24.4 ppb in 1980 and 15.3 ppb in 1981, as well as an increase in the concentration of HCH (15.3 ppb in 1980 and 27.4 ppb in 1981). The contents of CHs in the adipose tissue of Antarctic pinnipeds are 100—1000 times lower than those in the Arctic seals.
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Abstract

Oil derivatives are commonly used and they play a key role in the economy. They are used in many industries. Such big amounts of oil derivatives products generate vast quantity of pollution. Those pollutants can get into the ground and water beyond any control during catastrophes or due to inadequately managed waste and storage. The aim of the paper was to determine the level of oil derivatives pollution in the groundwater on the area of a former airbase, where between 1950 and 1990 the Soviet Army stationed. Analysis was carried out on groundwater samples from three piezometers placed on the area of the former airbase. In the samples some parameters were determined, i.e. temperature, reaction, electrolytic conductivity, the depth of groundwater surface, the content of aliphatic hydrocarbons, monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Determined amount of dissolved hydrocarbons was large what proves unsatisfactory effectiveness of previous rehabilitation processes.
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Abstract

In the region of Bransfield Strait and southern part of Drake Passage the highest amounts of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs — compounds of the DDT group, HCH isomers and PCBs) were found in the samples taken at the sampling station where the CHs bottom deposits were released to the upper layers due to the special hydrological situation at this station. Increased amounts of CHs were observed also in phytoplankton sampled close to the melting ice of glacier origin which was considered as a source of pollution. However, phytoplankton sampled from the waters covered with pack-ice exhibited the lowest rate of CHs accumulation. Slightly elevated CHs accumulation was found in sea ice diatoms. All the samples exhibited elevated amount of polichlorinated biphenyls, markedly higher than that of chloroorganic insecticides.
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Abstract

Influence exerted by various concentrations (0.01 to 50 ppm) of some chlorinated hydrocarbons (Aroclor 1254, Aroclor 1242, pp'DDE, pp'DDT and Lindane (ɣ НСН)) upon the photosynthetic assimilation of 14C02 in Antarctic marine diatom assemblage dominated by Corethron criophilum and some species of Nitzschia (Fragilariopsis group) has been investigated. The photosynthesis was fully inhibited by Lindane (ɣ HCH) in all applied concentrations To smaller extent the photosynthetic process was inhibited in turn by Aroclor 1242, pp'DDE and pp'DDT successively. Aroclor 1254 proved to be the least toxic. The possibility of the decrease of the primary production of the Antarctic diatoms caused by the chlorinated hydrocarbons was discussed.
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Abstract

A ccording to the Polish Geological and Mining Law the granting of a concession for the exploration of a hydrocarbon deposit and the production of hydrocarbons from a deposit, or a concession for the production of hydrocarbons from a deposit in Poland is proceeded according to a tender procedure or open door procedure (upon a request of an entity). O n June 28, 2018 the Polish Minister of the Environment announced 5 tender areas. These areas (promising for discoveries of conventional and unconventional oil and gas deposits) were selected by the geologists of the Polish Geological Institute-NRI and Department of Geology and Geological Concessions of the Ministry of the Environment based on the geological data resources stored in the National Geological Archive. These are: Bestwina-Czechowice, Królówka, Pyrzyce, Złoczew i Żabowo. The main exploration target on the areas located in central and north-western Poland (Pyrzyce, Żabowo and Złoczew) is related to Permian Rotliegend sandstones and carbonates of the Zechstein/Main Dolomite. The Bestwina-Czechowice and Królówka areas (southern Poland) are prospective for conventional and hybrid-type accumulations of gas in the Miocene of the Carpathian Foredeep below the Carpathian Overthrust and in the Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement. The beginning of the 4th bidding round for hydrocarbon concessions is planned in Q4 2019. The entity can also choose the area and apply for a license submitting an application to the Ministry of the Environment. The area indicated by the entity cannot be the subject of a tender or any other concession, and the maximum acreage is 1,200 km2.
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Abstract

The Marhřgda Bed occurring at base of the Adventdalen Group in Sassenfjorden, Spitsbergen contains common ankerite–replaced belemnite skeletons. Petrographic, major element geochemical, and stable carbon and oxygen isotopic data indicate that the ankerite originated in a catagenic environment associated with thermal degradation of kerogenan d hydrocarbongen erationinthe sequence. It formed at maximum temperature of 150°C under burial of approx. 2 000 m, most probably during Paleogene filling and subsidence of the Central Spitsbergen Basin. Dissolution of biogenic calcite and precipitation of ankerite reflect extensive heat flow through the Adventdalen Group sequence related to the Cretaceous and Paleogene magmatic and orogenic activity in Svalbard.
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Abstract

Results of research on the hazard posed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained in the dusts emitted from motor vehicle braking systems have been presented. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) constitute a group of chemical compounds that pose a serious danger to the human health, chiefly because of their carcinogenic properties. Investigations into the issue of environmental pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated by motor vehicle traffic were carried out in connection with the work being done at PIMOT on systems to reduce dust emission from motor vehicle braking systems. The investigations included determination of PAH contents of the dust emitted from vehicle braking systems as well as the PAH concentrations in the indoor air in a room with the stand for testing dust emissions from braking systems and in the duct to carry away gases from that room. Moreover, the PAH contents of soil were measured in the context of location of the soil sampling points in relation to traffic routes. The PAH contents were measured in Warsaw and in Zabrze. The investigation results confirmed that PAHs considered as being most harmful to the human health due to their carcinogenic properties were actually present in the dusts emitted from braking systems. The PAH contents of soil were found to be very sensitive to the location of the soil sampling points in relation to traffic routes and this is a confirmation of the thesis that motor traffic is an important source of environmental pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
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Abstract

The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water and sediments of the Blachownia reservoir (South Poland) was investigated. Spatial variability of PAH concentrations in the longitudinal profi le of the tank was determined. PAHs in samples were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS QP-2010 Plus Shimadzu) using an internal standard. Concentrations ranged from 0.103 μg/L to 2.667 μg/L (Σ16 PAHs) in water samples and from 2.329 mg/kg d.w. to 9.078 mg/kg d.w. (Σ16 PAHs) in sediment samples. A pollution balance was calculated and it was estimated that the infl ow load was 17.70 kg PAHs during the year and the outfl ow load was 9.30 kg PAHs per year. Accumulation of about 50% of the annual PAH loads (8.90 kg) is a threat to the ecological condition of the ecosystem. It was calculated that the PAH loads in bottom sediment were about 80 kg, which limits their economic use. Improvement of the ecological status of this type of reservoir can be achieved by removing the sediment. Analysis of the diagnostic ratios obtained for selected PAHs showed that the potential sources of PAH emissions in small agricultural – forest catchments can be combustion of a coal, wood, plant material (low emission, forest fi res, burning grass, etc.). Transportation is also signifi cant.
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Abstract

No-bake process refers to the use of chemical binders to bond the moulding sand. Sand is moved to the mould fill station in preparation for filling of the mould. A mixer is used to blend the sand with the chemical binder and activator. As the sand exits the mixer, the binder begins the chemical process of hardening. This paper presents the results of decomposition of the moulding sands with modified ureafurfuryl resin (with the low content of furfuryl alcohol below 25 % and different activators: organic and inorganic) on a quartz matrix, under semi-industrial conditions. Investigations of the gases emission in the test foundry plant were executed according to the method extended in the Faculty of Foundry Engineering (AGH University of Science and Technology). Article presents the results of the emitted chosen aromatic hydrocarbons and loss on ignition compared with the different activators used to harden this resin. On the bases of the data, it is possible to determine the content of the emitted dangerous substances from the moulding sand according to the content of loss on ignition.
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Abstract

Air Pollution in Poland – Condition, Causes and Effects. In the recent years the air in Poland seems to be the most polluted in Europe (it is worse only in a few times smaller Bulgaria). The concentration of particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), represented by benzo(a)pyrene are among the highest in European Union countries. They are highly toxic, especially PAHS, which damage the hematopoietic system, accumulate in living organisms leading to a cancerous process, they cause damages to the central nervous system and infertility. It is estimated that high air pollution causes 45-47 thousands premature deaths in Poland every year, as well as growth frequency of allergies and chronic diseases. Polish society loses about 520,000 potential years of life, and the economy of 18.5 million work days. It’s a very high price. The weather determines to a large extent the air pollution. The smog episode is usually accompanied by low wind speed or atmospheric silence, reduction of visibility and thermal inversions. However, the biggest problem is low emission, which is mainly related to individual heating of buildings (78-87% of the total emission of benzo(a)pyrene. The reasons for such poor sanitary condition of the air in Poland are complex and to a large extent they result from spatial chaos and lack of spatial planning, but also from general policy country. The most important reasons are i.a.: the lack of a planning policy and a sustainable transport policy, persistent subsidies for unprofitable coal mines, the lack of a policy promoting renewable energy sources and “clean” technologies, high gas price (the highest in Europe) and no subsidies for the poorest, scattered buildings which hinders access to system heat, inefficient and unsuitable transport based on road transport road and individual cars (often old, Diesel) etc.
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Abstract

In the paper, the research results on the removal of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C7 to C30) on constructed wetlands have been presented. The research has been realized on the semi-technical scale constructed wetlands. planted with reed Phragmites australis. The experimental installation is located on the filling station in Balice and treats the fraction of stormwater from this utility. The concentrations of total aliphatic hydrocarbons in analyzed stormwater were between 96.02 µg/dm3 and 6177.33 µg/dm3 , and from 47.55 µg/dm3 to 5011.14 µg/dm3 in effluent from the installation. The average total aliphatic hydrocarbons removal effectiveness was 48%, the values ranged from 19% to 81%. Hydrocarbons C14 to C18 were removed with the lowest effectiveness (26%–32%), the lighter hydrocarbons – with higher one (39%–68%), however the highest removal effectiveness were observed for the hydrocarbons with the highest carbon atoms numbers (from 51% for C20 to 92%–93% for C26–C30).
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Abstract

The impacts of long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metal pollution on soil microbial communities functioning were studied in soils taken from an old coke plant. The concentrations of PAHs in the tested soils ranged from 171 to 2137 mg kg-1. From the group of tested heavy metals, concentrations of lead were found to be the highest, ranging from 57 to 3478 mg kg-1, while zinc concentrations varied from 247 to 704 mg kg-1 and nickel from 10 to 666 mg kg-1. High dehydrogenase, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in the most contaminated soil. This may indicate bacterial adaptation to long-term heavy metal and hydrocarbon contamination. However, the Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPPs) analysis showed that the microbial functional diversity was reduced and influenced to a higher extent by some metals (Pb, Ni), moisture and conductivity than by PAHs.
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Abstract

Pyrolysis is potentially an effective treatment of oily sludge for oil recovery, and the addition of a catalyst is expected to affect its pyrolysis behavior. In the present study, Fe/Al-pillared bentonite with various Fe/Al ratios as pyrolysis catalyst is prepared and characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, and NH3-TPD. The integration of Al and Fe in the bentonite interlayers to form pillared clay is evidenced by increase in the basal spacing. As a result, a critical ratio of Fe/Al exists in the Fe/Al-pillared bentonite catalytic pyrolysis for oil recovery from the sludge. The oil yield increases with respect to increase in Fe/Al ratio of catalysts, then decreases with further increasing of Fe/Al ratio. The optimum oil yield using 2.0 wt% of Fe/Al 0.5-pillared bentonite as catalyst attains to 52.46% compared to 29.23% without catalyst addition in the present study. In addition, the addition of Fe/Al-pillared bentonite catalyst also improves the quality of pyrolysis-produced oil and promotes the formation of CH4. Fe/Al-pillared bentonite provides acid center in the inner surface, which is beneficial to the cracking reaction of oil molecules in pyrolysis process. The present work implies that Fe/Al-pillared bentonite as addictive holds great potential in industrial pyrolysis of oily sludge.
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