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Abstract

The study was undertaken to determine the effect of continuation or changes of the diet on the morphometry and histomorphometry of bone in male and female Wistar rats with experimen- tally induced obesity by high energetic diet. Sixty-four 90-day-old Wistar rats obtained from obese parents (16 male, 16 female) and control parents (16 male, 16 female) were used in this study. After 21 days of the baby period, rats were divided into four groups: obese rats fed with high energy feed (F/F), control rats fed with a standard diet (C/C), obese rats with changed diet from high energy diet to control diet (F/C) and control rats with changed diet from control diet to high energy diet (C/F). After 90 days of experimental feeding, the rats were sacrificed. Thereafter, body weight and the isolated humerus were measured and next, the histological stainings and counts were done. Our results revealed that change in the parent’s diet from F to C in the female leads to increased bone growth length and reduction of body weight in female and male. Reverse diet changes (from C to F) lead to decreased bone length only in the female. Moreover, the con- tinuation by offspring of both sexes with a high-energy diet contributes to a reduction in osteo- cytes, reduction in bone marrow cavity and cortical expansion, but a change in nutrition from parents’ standard diet to high-energy diet leads to increase in osteocytes dimensions. The contin- uation of feeding with F diet promotes the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow in female and male, and correction of nutrition from F to standard diet leads to a reduction in their number in the bone marrow compared to groups continuing feeding with high-energy diet.
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Abstract

The fossil record of Antarctic Sphenisciformes dates as early as the late Palaeocene Cross Valley Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula. However, the best known Antarctic locality for early penguin remains (mainly isolated bones) is the Eocene La Meseta Formation that outcrops in the northeast of Seymour Island. The analysis of an unstudied set of specimens collected there by members of the British Antarctic Survey in 1989 has resulted in identification of a distal humerus from the unit Telm3 (early Eocene) of the formation that is the oldest known bone attributable to a medium−sized (in the context of the entire Cainozoic era) penguin. This find suggests that the origin of these birds, in con− junction with an increase in taxonomic diversity of the Eocene Sphenisciformes, was related to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) or, more probably, the early phase of subsequent cooling.
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