The article presents the academic activities and methodological approaches of Russian historians Mikhail Pokrovsky (1868–1932) and David Riazanov (1870–1938) who worked in a difficult political climate. They both had their own criteria of objectivity in history and held their own political views. They shared the reality of Bolshevism, although their concepts of interpreting his- tory clashed with Bolshevist ways of thinking. Bolshevism practices and beliefs required drastic adjustments in academic studies, in particular in the social sciences. The article focuses on the interactions between the governing party and Pokrovsky Riazanov.
This paper focuses on the development of critical methods and the growth of the erudite school in 18th-century Denmark-Norway. It shows how Hans Gram, Andreas Hojer and Jacob Langebek contributed to modernizing the study of history, turning it into a branch of science
The paper considers Timothy Snyder’s applied methodology of history. Snyder’s original field of interest as a professional historian was historical biography, but it did not take him long to put transnational history at the centre of his attention. The author posits that Snyder’s practice in this historiographic paradigm has laid the foundation for his greatest academic achievements, leading to him being recognized as one of the best historians working today.