The shifting attitudes to sources and traditional paradigms of social history and history of the early modern period culture, and to problems of individuals and groups, are considered here. The author indicates discussion ﬁ elds and speciﬁ c results of work carried out by research groups (mainly French and German ones). He indicates trends and tendencies in discovering individuals in presenting historical events from the perspective of a collective hero
The paper considers Timothy Snyder’s applied methodology of history. Snyder’s original field of interest as a professional historian was historical biography, but it did not take him long to put transnational history at the centre of his attention. The author posits that Snyder’s practice in this historiographic paradigm has laid the foundation for his greatest academic achievements, leading to him being recognized as one of the best historians working today.
The article attempts to evaluate Polish historiography dealing with the early modern period, published since 1989, the date marking the political transition in Poland. The transition has affected the way in which history has been practised in recent years, with a clear alteration in the subjectmatters and topics dealt with. Political history and the history of towns/cities and the bourgeoisie are beyond the scope of this discussion and assessment.