When the machine is at high speed, serious problems occur, such as high frequency loss, difficult thermal management, and the rotor structural strength insufficiency. In this paper, the performances of two high-speed permanent magnet generators (HSP- MGs) with different rotational speeds and the same torque are compared and analyzed. The two-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of the 117 kW, 60 000 rpm HSPMG is established. By comparing a calculation result and test data, the accuracy of the model is verified. On this basis, the 40 kW, 20 000 rpm HSPMG is designed and the FEM is established. The relationship between the voltage regulation sensitivity and power factor of the two HSPMGs is determined. The influence mechanism of the voltage regulation sensitivity is further revealed. In addition, the air-gap flux density is decomposed by the Fourier transform principle, and the influence degree of different harmonic orders on the HSPMG performance is determined. The method to reduce the harmonic content is further proposed. Finally, the method to improve the HSPMG overload capacity is obtained by studying the maximum power. The research showed that the HSPMG at low speed (20 000 rpm) has high sensitivity of the voltage regulation, while the HSPMG at high speed (60 000 rpm) is superior to the HSPMG at low speed in reducing the harmonic content and increasing the overload capacity.
A new configuration of rectifier suiting CMOS technology is presented. The rectifier consists of only two n-channel MOS transistors, two capacitors and two resistors; for this reason it is very favourable in manufacturing in CMOS technology. With these features the rectifier is easy to design and cheap in production. Despite its simplicity, the rectifier has relatively good characteristics, the voltage and power efficiency, and bandwidth greater than 89%, 87%, and 1 GHz, respectively. The performed simulations and measurements of a prototype circuit fully confirmed its correct operation and advantages.
The Low Temperature Joining Technique (LTJT) using silver compounds enables to significantly increase the thermal conductivity between joined elements, which is much higher than for soldered joints. However, it also makes difficult to measure the thermal conductivity of the joint. The Laser Flash Analysis (LFA) is a non-intrusive method of measuring the temperature rise of one surface of a specimen after excitation with a laser pulse of its other surface. The main limitation of the LFA method is its standard computer software, which assumes the dimensions of a bonded component to be similar to those of the substrate, because it uses the standard Parker’s formula dedicated for one-dimensional heat flow. In the paper a special design of measured specimen was proposed, consisting of two copper plates of different size joined with the sintered silver layer. It was shown that heat properties of these specimens can also be measured after modifying the LFA method. The authors adapted these specimens by masking the false heat signal sourced from the uncovered plate area. Another adaptation was introducing a correcting factor of the heat travel distance, which was calculated with heat-flow simulations and placed into the Parker’s formula. The heat-flow simulated data were compared with the real LFA measurement results, which enabled estimation of the joint properties, e.g. its porosity.
In this paper, the power factor correction system consisted of: bridge converter, parallel resonant circuit, high frequency transformer, diode rectifier and LFCF filter is presented. This system is controlled by a pulse density modulation method and the principle of its operation is based on the boost technique. The modeling approach is illustrated by an example using AC/HF/DC converter. Verification of the derived model is provided, which demonstrated the validity of the proposed approach.
This paper presents a study on ferroresonance occurring in a high voltage 400 kV transmission grid due to energization of power transformer under no-load conditions. The system scenarios analyzed in the present paper are considered as critical for development and modernization plans as currently announced by the national grid operator in Poland. The PSCADsimulation modelwas developed and applied for several study cases of a system with double-circuit arrangement of a transmission line. It is shown that the ferroresonant oscillations can be initiated by two-phase switching operation of a line circuit breaker. The impact of the double-circuit length on the ferroresonance mode and severity is demonstrated with the use of the Poincaré map analysis and Short Time Fourier Transform. It is demon- strated that the length of the transmission line that is mutually coupled in the double-circuit arrangement has a significant impact on the ferroresonance occurrence and on its mode. As the ferroresonance can pose severe threat to the power system components due to the severe overvoltage and overcurrent oscillations, the analysis presented in this paper demonstrates the necessity of the ferroresonance analyses for any re-designed transmission system.
The double barrier separate confinement heterostructure (DBSCH) design aimed at reduction of vertical beam divergence and increase of catastrophic optical damage (COD) level for high power laser diodes (LDs) operation is presented. Insertion of thin, wide-gap barrier layers at the interfaces between waveguide and cladding layers of SCH gives an additional degree of freedom in design making possible more precise shaping of the optical field distribution in the laser cavity. By comparison with the large optical cavity (LOC) heterostructure design it has been shown that the low beam divergence emission of DBSCH LDs can be attributed to the soft-profiled field distribution inside the cavity. This soft mode profile seems to determine narrow laser beam emission rather than the field distribution width itself. The potential problem with the soft-profiled but relatively narrow (at half-maximum) mode distribution is a lower COD level. Widening of the mode profile by the heterostructure design corrections can increase it, but care must be taken to avoid excessive decrease of confinement factor (Γ). As a result it is shown that DBSCH design is possible, where the low beam divergence and high COD level is achieved simultaneously. Wide stripe gain-guided LDs based on GaAsP/AlGaAs DBSCH SQW structures have been manufactured according to the design above. Gaussian-shaped narrow directional characteristics are in relatively good agreement with modelling predictions. Vertical beam divergences are 1315o and 1718o FWHM for design versions experimentally investigated. Threshold current densities of the order of 350270 Acm-2 and slope efficiencies of 0.95 and 1.15 W/A have been recorded for these two versions, respectively. Optical power at the level of 1 W has been achieved. The version with lower beam divergence proves to be more durable. Higher optical power levels are to be obtained after heterostructure doping optimisation.
This paper presents a comparison of the blending efficiency of eight high-speed rotary impellers in a fully baffled cylindrical vessel under the turbulent flow regime of agitated charge. Results of carried out experiments (blending time and impeller power input) confirm that the down pumping axial flow impellers exhibit better blending efficiency than the high-speed rotary impellers with prevailing radial discharge flow. It follows from presented results that, especially for large scale industrial realisations, the axial flow impellers with profiled blades bring maximum energy savings in comparison with the standard impellers with inclined flat blades (pitched blade impellers).
This paper presents a concept and the results of an investigation of a DC–DC boost converter with high voltage gain and a reduced number of switches. The novel concept assumes that the converter operates in a topology composed of series connection switched- capacitor-based multiplier (SCVM) sections. Furthermore, the structure of the sections has significant impact on parameters of the converter which is discussed in this paper. The paper demonstrates the basic benefit such a multisection SCVM idea in the converter, which is the significant reduction in the number of switches and diodes for high voltage gain in comparison to an SCVM converter. Aside from the number of switches and diodes, such parameters as efficiency and volume of passive components in the multisection converter are analyzed in this paper. In figures, the analysis is demonstrated using the example of 100 kW thyristor-based converters. All the characteristics of the converter are compared between various configurations of switching cells in the particular sections, thus the paper can be useful for a design approach for a high voltage gain multicell converter.