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Number of results: 16
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Abstract

The contents of copper, manganese, zinc, lead and cadmium have been determined in plants of the Spitsbergen tundra, collected at Calypsostranda, Lyellstranda and Chamberlindalen in 1987. Five species of vascular plants, four species of mosses and fourteen species of lichens have been investigated. Manganese content in all the studied plants falls in the physiological limits of this element. Appreciable concentrations of copper, and zinc exceeding the physiological concentrations of these elements and presence of lead and cadmium have been shown for many plants.
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Abstract

In the years 1987-1995 studies were carried out on the content of Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd in plants and soil in the Bellsund area, Western Spitsbergen. For the studies the author used predominating species of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens collected from beaches littoral planes, valleys, slopes and mountain peaks. Some plant species, largely bryophytes and lichens, were shown to contain increased amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd, whilst in others Cu deficiency was found. This paper is summing up studies concerning the content of Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd in plants of Western Spitsbergen, which were conducted over many years.
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Abstract

The analysis of leaching behavior of harmful substances, such as arsenic, is one of the parameters of risk assessment resulting from the storage or economic use of coal waste. The leachability depends both on the environmental conditions of the storage area as well as on the properties of the waste material itself. There are a number of leaching tests that allow to model specific conditions or measure the specific properties of the leaching process. The conducted research aimed at comparing two methods with different application assumptions. The study of arsenic leaching from waste from the hard coal enrichment process was carried out in accordance with the Polish PN-EN 12457 standard and the US TCLP procedure. The leaching results obtained with both methods did not exceed the limit values of this parameter, defined in the Polish law. Both methods were also characterized by the good repeatability of the results. The use of an acetic acid solution (TCLP method) resulted in three times higher arsenic leaching from the examined waste compared to the use of deionized water as a leaching fluid (method PN-EN 12457). Therefore, the use of organic acid tests for mining waste intended for storage with municipal waste should be considered, as the results of the basic test based on clean water leaching may be inadequate to the actual leaching of arsenic under such environmental conditions.
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Abstract

Heavy metal pollutants in the leachate of waste landfill are a potential threat to the environment. In this study, the feasibility of using municipal sewage sludge as barrier material for the containment of heavy metal pollutants from solid waste landfills was evaluated by compaction test and hydraulic conductivity test concerning compaction property, impermeability and heavy metal retardation. Results of the compaction test showed that the maximum dry density of 0.79 g·cm−3 was achieved at the optimum water content of about 60%. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted sewage sludge permeated with synthetic heavy metal solutions were in the range of 1.3×10−8 – 6.2×10−9 cm·s−1, less than 1.0 ×10−7cm·s−1 recommended by regulations for barrier materials. Chemical analyses on the effluent from the hydraulic conductivity tests indicated that the two target heavy metals, Zn and Cd in the permeants were all retarded by compacted sewage sludge, which might be attributed to the precipitation and adsorption of heavy metal ions. The results of this study suggest that specially prepared material from sewage sludge could be used as a barrier for waste landfills for its low permeability and strong retardation to heavy metal pollutants.
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Abstract

The heavy metal release experiments were conducted in the laboratory to examine the effects of 3 factors - pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and temperature on the metal release from sediments taken from the Huangpu River. The metal concentrations in the dry sediments ranged from 0.030 to 0.296 mg g-1 for Cr, 0.021 to 0.097 mg g-1 for Ni, 0.014 to 0.219 mg g-1 for Cu, 0.035 mg to 0.521 mg g-1 for Zn, 0.0002 to 0.001 mg g-1 for Cd and 0.023 to 0.089 mg g-1 for Pb. Most of the metals found in the sediments were in the form of residual fraction, the exchangeable fraction consisted of only a small portion of total metals. The average dissolved metal concentrations in the overlying water during the 13-day period under different conditions were ranging from 0.82 to 1.93 μg L-1 for Cr, 1.08 to 4.19 μg L-1 for Ni, 40.79 to 82.28 μg L-1 for Cu, 20.30 to 29.96 μg L-1 for Zn, 1.57 to 4.07 μg L-1 for Cd, and 22.26 to 75.50 μg L-1 for Pb, respectively. Statistical interpretation of the data indicated that pH (7, 8, 9), dissolved oxygen DO (1.0 and 5.0 mg L-1) and temperature (4, 16, 25°C) had no significant effects on the heavy metal release under the studied conditions. Cu and Pb had the highest release flux, while Cd, Pb and Cu had higher mobility. The main factors controlling the metals release might be the inherent characters of metals and sediments.
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Abstract

In the last decade a growing interest was observed in low-cost adsorbents for heavy metal ions. Clinoptilolite is a mineral sorbent extracted in Poland that is used to remove heavy metal ions from diluted solutions. The experiments in this study were carried out in a laboratory column for multicomponent water solutions of heavy metal ions, i.e. Cu(II), Zn(II) and Ni(II). A mathematical model to calculate the metals' concentration of water solution at the column outlet and the concentration of adsorbed substances in the adsorbent was proposed. It enables determination of breakthrough curves for different process conditions and column dimensions. The model of process dynamics in the column took into account the specificity of sorption described by the Elovich equation (for chemical sorption and ion exchange). Identification of the column dynamics consisted in finding model coefficients β, KE and Deff and comparing the calculated values with experimental data. Searching for coefficients which identify the column operation can involve the use of optimisation methods to find the area of feasible solutions in order to obtain a global extremum. For that purpose our own procedure of genetic algorithm is applied in the study.
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Abstract

This work presents the results of a study whose aim was to determine the influence of algal blooms on precipitation of heavy metals. The scope of the study covered culture of a mixed population made up of Scenedesmus and Pseudokirchneriella algae in experimental conditions and initiating a metal biosorption process with the use of culture biomass by administering ions of Zn(II) and Ni(II). The process was controlled by assessing the level of biosorption of metals entered at a one-off basis in the form of Zn(II) and Ni(II) salts or in the form of mixture of both ions, in comparison to the control sample, at different exposure times (2 hours and 24 hours). The presence of metals was determined both in the biomass and in the culture medium. The presented results of the study confirm the effectiveness of Chlorophyta in the process of zinc and nickel biosorption. A phenomenon of competitiveness between the metals was observed when they were administered at the same time.
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Abstract

The prevalence of heavy metals in wastewater is the cause of death of numerous organisms which take part in biological treatment of wastewater, that is why the aim of the study has been to asses the influence of cadmium and copper ions upon the microfauna of activated sludge. 5, 10, 50, and 100 mg/l of Cd2+ and Cu2+ were added into the samples of activated sludge and then, after 24 hours, the microscopic observations of activated sludge microfauna were carried out, and all changes concerning the amount of microfauna, functional groups, and species composition were determined. The results obtained allowed to find a high level of toxicity of Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions to activated sludge microfauna, which resulted in the changes in the value of the Sludge Biotic Index and classes of sludge, survivability of microfauna, and reduction in the number of taxonomic units. It was observed that Cu2+ ions are more toxic to activated sludge microfauna than Cd2+ ions in identical doses. Organisms sensitive to Cd2+ and Cu2+ ions have been found to be testate amoebae, Aspidisca sp. and Epistylis sp., as well as organisms relatively sensitive to tested metals, which turned out to be ciliates of Opercularia and Vorticella convalaria genera.
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Abstract

The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) produced from Rhizobium radiobacter F2, designated as EPSF2, was investigated as a biosorbent for the removal of Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution. The optimum biosorption pH values were 5.0 for Pb(II) and 6.0 for Zn(II). Kinetics study revealed that the biosorption followed pseudo-first-order model well, and the equilibrium data fit the Langmuir model better. The adsorbed metal ions could be effectively desorbed by HCl. Desrobed EPSF2 regained 80% of the initial biosorption capacity after five cycles of biosorption-desorption-elution. These results demonstrated that EPSF2 could be a promising alternative for Pb(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solution.
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Abstract

The aim of our research was to investigate the genotoxic effects of cobalt chloride and copper chloride in mouse bone marrow cells using the micronucleus (MN) assay. The three different concentrations of cobalt chloride (11.2, 22.5 and 45 mg kg-1) and copper chloride (1.17, 2.35 and 4.70 mg kg-1) were injected intraperitoneally to mice for 24 and 48 hours. It was observed that both of these heavy metals induced a significant increase in frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE) at different concentrations in mice for 24 and 48 hours when compared with the control. Furthermore, the significant reduction for the polychromatic erythrocyte/normochromatic erythrocyte (PCE/NCE) ratio which is indicative of bone marrow cytotoxicity was observed in bone marrow cells which were treated with copper chloride at all concentrations for 24 and 48 hours. No reduction of the PCE/NCE ratio was observed both 24 and 48 hours after all the doses of cobalt chloride tested as compared to the negative control. These results lead us to the conclusion that copper chloride may have genotoxic and cytotoxic properties due to induction in the frequency of MN and a reduction in PCE/NCE ratio in bone marrow cells of mice, whereas cobalt chloride induced only genotoxic effect in mice bone marrow
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Abstract

In the present paper we show results of our research on the contents of selected heavy metals in the surface and subsurface water layers of the estuarine lake Gardno. Obtained results show that there are substantial differences between concentrations of lead, copper and zinc in surface microlayer and subsurface waters. We observed that the surface microlayer is capable of accumulating much higher amounts of these metals than the subsurface waters. Analysis of seasonal changes in heavy metal concentrations in surface microlayers and subsurface waters shows some periodicity of these changes.
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Abstract

Contamination of soil with heavy metals has become a worldwide environmental problem, and receives great attention. In this study, we aim to investigate soil pollution level affected by an industrial district nearby. The total amount of typical heavy metals in the soils (Hengyang Songmu Industrial Park, Hunan Province, China) was analyzed. In addition, the fraction analysis and laboratory simulation leaching via different pH rainwater was carried out to study the migration and transformation of heavy metals. The main results show that the contents of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd in the samples were higher than the soil background values in Hunan Province. The heavy metals forms, analyzed by sequential extraction method, show that the proportion of the unstable form of Cd, Zn and Pb was more than 50%. Igeo values indicate that the heavy metal pollution degree of soil sample #5 at the investigated area is recorded in the order of Cd(6.42), Zn(2.28), Cu(1.82), Pb(1.63), and Cr(0.37). Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd in this area could pose a potential leaching risk to the environment which may affect the food chain and constitute a threat to human health. It would be necessary to take steps to stabilize and monitor the heavy metals in soil.
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Abstract

In this study, non-sintered ceramsite was prepared using coal gasification coarse slag obtained from a methanol plant. The basic performance and heavy metal leaching toxicity were analyzed. The results showed that seven out of nine non-sintered ceramsite groups were in accordance with the national standard of compressive strength (5 MPa), while only three groups met the national standard of water absorption index of less than 22%. The heavy metal concentrations in these three groups were found to be lower than that specified in National Class IV of surface water environment standards. The concentration of Cr was found to be 16.45 μg/L, which represents only 1% of the IV standard. The optimum mixing ratio, which showed high compressive strength (6.76 MPa) and low water absorption (20.12%), was found to be 73% coal gasification coarse slag, 15% cement, and 12% quartz sand. The characterization using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the formation of gelatin in ceramsite enhances the performance of the ceramsite base and increases the immobilization of heavy metal. The study proved that the preparation of non-sintered ceramsite using coal gasification coarse slag reduces its environmental risk and achieves efficient utilization of the slag. Therefore, it can be concluded that it is a feasible and environmental friendly method for the disposal of coal slag.
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Abstract

The paper presents results of floristic investigation conducted within the territory of post-industrial spoil heaps connected with zinc and lead products manufacturing. The flora of specific technogenic habitats was analyzed with regard to geographical-historical groups and syntaxonomic classification. For each species, the following characteristics were determined: a life form according to the classification of Raunkiaer, means of seed spreading and types of mycorrhiza for each species based on the literature. On the two heaps, a total of 257 species of vascular plants belonging to 59 families were found. Only 92 species occurred on both sites, which is 36% of all plants recorded. The most numerous families are: Asteraceae (45 species) and Poaceae (28 species). Apophytes dominate in the flora of spoil heaps (70.9%). Hemicryptophytes are the most numerous group and therophytes are also abundant. Ruderal (belonging to Artemisietea vulgaris and Stelarietea mediae) and meadow species (belonging to Molino-Arrhenatheretea) dominate on both post-industrial dumps. Xerothermal species (belonging to Festuco-Brometea) are also fairly numerous (6.7%). Their presence is related to the specific habitat conditions. The anemochoric species dominate in the flora of dumps. The high proportion of mycorrhizal plants was recorded. Finally, reclamation interventions which were carried out on the H2 spoil heap are discussed.
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Abstract

In the study suitability of water quality index approach and environmetric methods in fi ngerprinting heavy metal pollution as well as comparison of spatial variability of multiple contaminants in surface water were assessed in the case of The Gediz River Basin, Turkey. Water quality variables were categorized into two classes using factor and cluster analysis. Furthermore, soil contamination index was adapted to water pollution index and used to fi nd out the relative relationship between the reference standards and the current situation of heavy metal contamination in water. Results revealed that surface water heavy metal content was mainly governed by metal processing, textile and tannery industries in the region. On the other hand, metal processing industry discharges mainly degraded quality of water in Kemalpasa and Menemen. Furthermore, Kemalpasa region has been heavily affected from tannery and textile industries effl uents. Moreover, pollution parameters have not been infl uenced by changes in physical factors (discharge and temperature). This study indicated the effectiveness of water quality index approach and statistical tools in fi ngerprinting of pollution and comparative assessment of water quality. Both methods can assist decision makers to determine priorities in management practices.
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