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## Study of temperature distribution in the ground

### Abstract

Knowledge of the temperature distribution in subsurface layers of the ground is important in the design, modelling and exploitation of ground heat exchangers. In this work a mathematical model of heat transfer in the ground is presented. The model is based on the solution of the equation of transient heat transfer in a semi-infinite medium. In the boundary condition on the surface of the ground radiation fluxes (short- and long-wave), convective heat flux and evaporative heat flux are taken into account. Based on the developed model, calculations were carried out to determine the impact of climatic conditions and the physical properties of the ground on the parameters of the Carslaw-Jeager equation. Example results of calculated yearly courses of the daily average temperature of the surface of the ground and the amount of particular heat fluxes on the ground surface are presented. The compatibility of ground temperature measurements at different depths with the results obtained from the Carslawâ€“Jaeger equation is evaluated. It was found that the temperature distribution in the ground and its variability in time can be calculated with good accuracy.
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## Energy efficiency analysis of railway turnout heating system with a melting snow model heated by classic and contactless heating method

### Abstract

Maintaining railway turnout operability is crucial for ensuring railway transport safety. Electric heating of railway turnouts is a significant technical and economic issue. The classical heating is characterised by high power consumption. For this reason, research is needed to optimise the current system. This paper presents results of a numerical analysis and of experimental researches. The numerical analysis was carried out using the ANSYS software. There was conducted a numerical comparative analysis of energy loss during heating performed using two different heaters. Including the classical method and a heater thermally insulated from a rail. In the first step, heating of a working space filled with a substitute snow model was considered. The snow-covered surface area was held within the working space of the turnout. It was assumed that the snow substitute material had thermal properties approximately the same as real light snow. It was also assumed that the material is in the solid state which would not undergo a phase change. In the next step, a real snow model that included the phase change process was taken into account. The energy efficiency and heat distribution in the turnout have been analysed and compared. The experimental researches were carried out in a physical model. The results showed that the use of a contactless heater results in creating a larger area over which emitted heat affected snow in the working space. Consequently, more snow was melted around the contactless heater than the classic one. This experimental observation supported the results of the numerical analyses presented previously.
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## On temperature distributions in a semi-infinite periodically stratified layer

### Abstract

The paper presents some problems of heat conduction in a semi-infinite periodically stratified layer. The layer is subjected to acting a constant temperature on the part of boundary, normal to the layering. The free heat exchange with surroundings is assumed on the remaining part of the boundary. The composite layer is supposed to be composed of n periodically repeated two-component lamina. The problem is solved in two ways: (10) directly as a heat conduction problem, (20) by using model with microlocal parameters [1,2]. The main aim of the paper is a comparison of the obtained results and to conclude possibilities of applications of the homogenized model with microlocal parameters.
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## Study on transport packages used for food freshness preservation based on thermal analysis

### Abstract

In recent time, as the Chinese consumption level increases, the consumption quantity of high-value fruits, vegetables and seafood products have been increasing year by year. As a consequence, the traffic volume of refrigerated products also increases yearly and the popularization degree of the cold-chain transportation enhances. A low-temperature environment should be guaranteed during transportation, thus there is about 40% of diesel oil should be consumed by the refrigerating system and the cold-chain transportation becomes very costly. This study aimed to explore methods that could reduce the cost of transport packages of refrigerated products. On the basis of the heat transfer theory and the fluid mechanics theory, the heat exchanging process of corrugated cases during the operation of refrigerating system was analyzed, the heat transfer process of corrugated cases and refrigerator van was theoretically analyzed and the heat balance equation of corrugated cases was constructed.
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## Determination of temperature and thermal stresses distribution in power boiler elements with use inverse heat conduction method

### Abstract

The following paper presents the method for solving one-dimensional inverse boundary heat conduction problems. The method is used to estimate the unknown thermal boundary condition on inner surface of a thick-walled Y-branch. Solution is based on measured temperature transients at two points inside the element's wall thickness. Y-branch is installed in a fresh steam pipeline in a power plant in Poland. Determination of an unknown boundary condition allows for the calculation of transient temperature distribution in the whole element. Next, stresses caused by non-uniform transient temperature distribution and by steam pressure inside a Y-branch are calculated using the finite element method. The proposed algorithm can be used for thermal-strength state monitoring in similar elements, when it is not possible to determine a 3-D thermal boundary condition. The calculated temperature and stress transients can be used for the calculation of element durability. More accurate temperature and stress monitoring will contribute to a substantial decrease of maximal stresses that occur during transient start-up and shut-down processes.
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