The paper presents an analysis of relations describing entropy generation in a condenser of a steam unit. Connections between entropy generation, condenser ratio, and heat exchanger effectiveness, as well as relations implied by them are shown. Theoretical considerations allowed to determine limits of individual parameters which describe the condenser operation. Various relations for average temperature of the cold fluid were compared. All the proposed relations were verified against data obtained using a simulator and actual measurement data from a 200 MW unit condenser. Based on data from a simulator it was examined how the sum of entropy rates, steam condenser effectiveness, terminal temperature difference and condenser ratio vary with the change in the inlet cooling water temperature, mass flow rate of steam and the cooling water mass flow rate.
This paper presents mathematical modelling and numerical analysis to evaluate entropy generation analysis (EGA) by considering pressure drop and second law efficiency based on thermodynamics for forced convection heat transfer in rectangular duct of a solar air heater with wire as artificial roughness in the form of arc shape geometry on the absorber plate. The investigation includes evaluations of entropy generation, entropy generation number, Bejan number and irreversibilities of roughened as well as smooth absorber plate solar air heaters to compare the relative performances. Furthermore, effects of various roughness parameters and operating parameters on entropy generation have also been investigated. Entropy generation and irreversibilities (exergy destroyed) has its minimum value at relative roughness height of 0.0422 and relative angle of attack of 0.33, which leads to the maximum exergetic efficiency. Entropy generation and exergy based analyses can be adopted for the evaluation of the overall performance of solar air heaters.
The Organic Flash Cycle (OFC) is suggested as a vapor power cycle that could potentially improve the efficiency of utilization of the heat source. Low and medium temperature finite thermal sources are considered in the cycle. Additionally the OFC’s aim is to reduce temperature difference during heat addition. The study examines 2 different fluids. Comparisons are drawn between the OFC and an optimized basic Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). Preliminary results show that ethanol and water are better suited for the ORC and OFC due to higher power output. Results also show that the single flash OFC achieves better efficiencies than the optimized basic ORC. Although the OFC improves the heat addition exergetic efficiency, this advantage was negated by irreversibility introduced during flash evaporation.
The Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences (Bull.Pol. Ac.: Tech.) is published bimonthly by the Division IV Engineering Sciences of the Polish Academy of Sciences, since the beginning of the existence of the PAS in 1952. The journal is peer‐reviewed and is published both in printed and electronic form. It is established for the publication of original high quality papers from multidisciplinary Engineering sciences with the following topics preferred: Artificial and Computational Intelligence, Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology, Civil Engineering, Control, Informatics and Robotics, Electronics, Telecommunication and Optoelectronics, Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Thermodynamics, Material Science and Nanotechnology, Power Systems and Power Electronics. Journal Metrics: JCR Impact Factor 2018: 1.361, 5 Year Impact Factor: 1.323, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.319, Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 1.005, CiteScore 2017: 1.27, The Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education 2017: 25 points. Abbreviations/Acronym: Journal citation: Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech., ISO: Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci.-Tech. Sci., JCR Abbrev: B POL ACAD SCI-TECH Acronym in the Editorial System: BPASTS.
An analysis of the power system functioning and the behaviors of the energy market participants allows the trends taking place within years to be identified, including these associated with the evolution of the electric energy and power demand profiles. The problems of balancing the peak power demand are of both a short and long term nature, which implies the need for changes in the electricity generation sector. Apart from the existing “silo-type” generation units, the construction of distributed energy sources implemented in the civic formula in the framework of self-sufficient energy communes and energy clusters is becoming increasingly important. Support for these programs is realized both at the legislative level, as well as within dedicated competitions and ministerial activities. The financial support carried out by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management and the Regional Operational Programs is also noticeable. One of the activities aimed at spreading the idea of clustering was the competition for certified energy clusters, conducted by the Ministry of Energy. The goal of the contest was the promotion and development of the distributed energy sector, which could be used for the improvement of energy security in the local manner and constitute a basis for the knowledge necessary in planning and developing the state’s energy policy. The paper presents a synthetic analysis of the results of the competition for a certified energy cluster from the perspective of planning and operational needs related to the functioning of the power system. Further, the information about the investment plans of new generation capacities, including their breakdown with respect to type, achievable power and costs has been provided. Also, the balancing of the demand for electric energy by own generation within the energy clusters has been characterized for three time perspectives
The progressive processes of globalization and changes in the global, European and local economy require integrated efforts aimed at solving problems related to development at the national regional and the local level involving the environment, energy sources, climate and technological transformation issues. European Union Member States are given right to create an individual Energy mix. Coal will continue to play a major role in Poland’s energy mix during the next decades. Polish coal reserves can provide energy security for decades. Despite crude oil and natural gas growth in fuel consumption, coal will continue to be the stabilizer of energy security for the country and play an important role in Poland’s energy mix in the years to come. However, further coal consumption requires investments in low carbon technologies which are of high efficiency and in high-efficiency cogeneration. The validity of the full utilization of cogeneration potential should be highlighted. Operating cogeneration plants are more expensive than power plants but they are more efficient and generate less carbon emissions. In accordance with the assumptions of the Energy policy of Poland, a low-carbon economy with renewable Energy sources and nuclear Energy should be supported and developed, however the obsolete coal generators should be replaced with low-carbon high-efficient ones.
Electric cars (SE) are currently considered to be one of the best ways to reduce CO2 and other air emissions in the transport sector as well as noise in cities. They can reduce the dependency of road transport on imported oil in a visible way. Nevertheless, the demand for electricity for a large amount of SE in road transport is not insignificant and has an impact on the power system. The article analyzes the potential impact of SE on the demand, supply, structure and costs of electricity generation as well as emissions as a result of introducing 1 million SEs by 2025 on Polish roads, and tripling this number by 2035. The competitive electricity market model ORCED was used for the calculations. The results of the analysis indicate that regardless of the charging strategy, the demand for SEs causes a slight increase in the overall electricity demand in Poland and consequently also a slight increase in power generating costs. Even a large increase in SEs in road transport will result in a rather moderate demand for additional generation capacity, assuming that power companies will have some control over the mode of charging cars. The introduction of SEs will not reduce CO2 emissions compared to conventional cars in 2025, on the contrary will increase them regardless of the loading strategy. In 2035 however, the result depends on the charging scenario and both the increase or decrease of emissions is possible. Electric vehicles will increase SO2 net emissions, but they will contribute to a decrease in the net emissions of particulates and NOx.
The article concerns safety of power supply for the final consumers, especially its two comprising elements, which are generation adequacy and distribution system reliability. Generation adequacy has been defined with Loss of Load Probability (LOLP), Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) and Energy Not Supplied (ENS) indices. Conclusions from generation adequacy forecast prepared by ENSTO-E for Poland compared with other European countries for the years 2020 and 2025 have been discussed along with the resulting threats. Interruptions in energy supply have been characterised by power discontinuity indicator SAIDI. Finally, a reliability and adequacy analysis have been performed for different scenarios of the Polish power system operation in order to assess possibilities of using distributed generation as a backup power source. Based on a simulation model created using the DIgSILENT Power Factory software, the reliability and adequacy calculations have been performed with the probabilistic non-sequential Monte Carlo method and they are followed by a discussion of the obtained results.
The paper presents the results of the design analysis and experimental investigations of the microturbine set consisting of the microturbine with partial admission and permanent magnet generator. The microturbine was designed for operation with the vapour of ethanol as a working fluid. Microturbine unit was tested for different parameters of the working fluid and varying the electrical load. The examples and the comparison between experiment results and numerical simulations are shown and discussed in the paper.
Until the early 1990s, the domestic power industry was a natural monopoly. This was caused by the specificity of the operation of the electricity transmission and distribution sub sectors, technical challenges of coordinating the operation of generating units and transmission networks, requirements regarding long-term forecasting of the industry development, and returns to scale. In view of the above, the objective of the presented paper is to assess the economic situation of energy companies operating in a competitive electricity market. The article analyses the main areas of activity of the energy companies, i.e.: the areas of production, transmission, distribution, and sales. In addition, the market shares of the various energy companies, in terms of generating capacity and the amount of the energy produced, were analyzed. Furthermore, the technical and economic situation of enterprises operating in the power sector was also subjected to analysis. The mentioned analysis has revealed that the profit received from the main activity of the enterprises (i.e. the sale of electricity) has decreased in recent years. What is more, the energy sector must adapt to legal and regulatory changes related to the intensification of the decarbonization policy pursued by the European Commission. Therefore, national energy should focus on developing skills in the areas of innovation, such as: electro mobility, energy storage, energy management, etc.
This paper presents the main dilemma of development of the Polish energy sector on the 20th anniversary of the first liberalization directive of the European Union, which created the energy market. The situation in the Polish energy sector based on fossil fuels, its transformation into lower emission one is closely connected to the process of restructuring and further development of the mining sector. On the other hand, we are witnessing the development of RES, household installations producing electricity with storage and the electrification of public transport. The investments in new, large scale fossil fuel fired power plants are very expensive and not economically proven when electricity prices are low. Until the new direction of investment in energy sector will be decided, the option of the lasting of the operating existing power units seems to be a good proposal. Is the thesis: “The energy security of Poland should be fully based on indigenous sources, generation and distribution assets, delivering electricity to end users. Ensuring competitive energy prices to the economy and households, the market should be fully open to producers and consumers, including chip electricity arising from the European single market” the right assumption for the Polish energy policy?
The implementation of micro scale combined heat and power systems is one of the ways to improve the energy security of consumers. In fact, there are many available large and medium scale cogeneration units, which operate according to the Rankine Cycle. Due to European Union demands in the field of using renewable energy sources and increasing energy efficiency result in the importance of additionally developing systems dedicated for use in residential buildings, farms, schools and other facilities. This paper shows the concept of introducing thermoelectric generators into typical wood stoves: steel plate wood stoves and accumulative wood stoves. Electricity generated in thermoelectric generators (there were studies on both three market available units and a prototypical unit developed by the authors) may be firstly consumed by the system (to power controller, actuators, fans, pumps, etc.). Additional power (if available) may be stored in batteries and then used to power home appliances (light, small electronics and others). It should be noted that commercially available thermoelectric generators are not matched for domestic heating devices – the main problems are connected with an insufficient heat flux transmitted from the stove to the hot side of the generator (caused e.g. by the non -homogeneous temperature distribution of the surface and bad contact between the stove and the generator) and inefficient cooling. To ensure the high efficiency of micro cogeneration systems, developing a dedicated construction both of the generator and the heat source is necessary.
The article analyzes the names given today to the children of inhabitants of Przemyśl — followers of Catholicism and Orthodoxy, at the same time showing their differences and similarities within both religions. In the same urban, communication and cultural community, Catholic and Orthodox live side by side (often for many generations). Despite everything, they to some extent retain their own identity (culture, traditions and customs), which also manifests itself in the names given to children. For a more complete picture of the situation, the names of the two older generations (parents and grandparents) were also presented.
The article discusses the importance of small hydro power plants in the Polish power system and defines the legal conditions for the operation of small hydro power plants. The phenomena occurring in the hydrological system of small hydro power plants and their impact on the natural environment were analyzed. An analysis of phenomena occurring in the hydrological system and the activity of small hydro power plants that are operating on the Radunia River helped us identify relations between different types of power plants working in cascades and possibilities of power generation control in period of several days. The above-mentioned analysis has been used in the development of a mathematical model of a hydroelectric plant and cascades of hydroelectric plants. The numerical simulations carried out concerned both the self-operating power plant and a cascade of two identical objects of this type. There is a possibility for small hydro power plant to run as a base load power plant and during periods of high demand as well (peak demand or unexpected loss of generation in the power system). A single hydroelectric power plant can deal with varying peak load demands while adding a second stage increase those abilities. A cascade of reservoir hydropower plants has a much greater ability to store energy and give it back in time. In addition, the existence of a second power plant equipped with a surge reservoir allows for a significant reduction in the amplitude of flows in the river below the cascade, which will reduce the negative impact of the cascade on the environment.
The transition of power grids to implement large amounts of nonsynchronous renewables reduces the inertia in the power system. Therefore, the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF) after a fault of given energy is higher in low inertia grids than in grids with mainly synchronous machines operating. Standard faults for the design of existing synchronous machines assume fixed frequency grids, in which an electrically close fault happens. It is not tested, if the machines can ride through transient disturbances with high ROCOF. For ROCOF values of up to 1 Hz/s as foreseen for the upcoming grid code of the Republic of Ireland and up to 2 Hz/s for Northern Ireland, a thorough verification, if generators are capable to ride through such events is necessary. For this study, ROCOF frequency traces provided by the transmission system operators (TSOs) of Ireland were first benchmarked with a full-grid model and in a second step impressed on a model of generators connected to the power grid via a step-up transformer to study transient stability and nonlinear response of the generator. This paper focusses on the ability of nine different synchronous machines to stay connected to the transmission system during severe ROCOF events without losing synchronism.
In the past it was usual to exert a huge effort in the design, simulation, and the real time implementation of the complicated electronic and communication systems, like GNSS receivers. The complexity of the system algorithms combined with the complexity of the available tools created a system that is difficult to track down for debugging or for redesign. So, the simulation and educational tools was different from the prototyping tools. In this paper the parallel search acquisition phase of a GPS receiver was simulated and implemented on FPGA using the same platform and through a graphical programming language. So this paper introduces the fruit of integrating the prototyping tools with the simulation tools as a single platform through which the complicated electronic systems can be simulated and prototyped.
The purpose of the present research relates to the sensitivity analysis of road vehicle comfort and handling performances with respect to suspension technological parameters. The envisaged suspension being of semi-active nature, this implies first to consider an hybrid modeling approach consisting of a 3D multibody model of the full car - an Audi A6 in our case - coupled with the electro-hydraulic model of the suspension dampers. Concerning parameter sensitivitie, the goal is to capture them for themselves - and not necessarily for optimization purpose - because their knowledge is of a great interest for the damper manufacturer. An important issue of the research is to consider objective functions which are based on complete time integrations along a given trajectory, the goal being - for instance - to quantify the sensitivity of the carbody rms acceleration (comfort) or of the vehicle overturning character (handling) with respect to suspension parameters. On one hand, the accuracy of the various partial derivatives computation can be greatly enhanced thanks to the symbolic capabilities of our ROBOTRAN multibody program. On the other hand, the computational efficiency of the process also takes advantage of the recursive formulation of the multibody equations of motion which must be time integrated with respect to both the generalized coordinates and their partial derivatives in case of the so-called direct method underlying sensitivity analysis.
Presented work considers flow and thermal phenomena occurring during the single minijet impingement on curved surfaces, heated with a constant heat flux, as well as the array of minijets. Numerical analyses, based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation laws, were conducted, regarding single phase and two-phase simulations. Focus was placed on the proper model construction, in which turbulence and boundary layer modeling was crucial. Calculations were done for various inlet parameters. Initial single minijet results served as the basis for the main calculations, which were conducted for two jet arrays, with flat and curved heated surfaces. Such complex geometries came from the cooling systems of electrical devices, and the geometry of cylindrical heat exchanger. The results, regarding Nusselt number, heated surface temperature, turbulence kinetic energy, production of entropy and vorticity, were presented and discussed. For assumed geometrical parameters similar results were obtained.
The growth in the system load accompanied by an increase of power loss in the distribution system. Distributed generation (DG) is an important identity in the electric power sector that substantially overcomes power loss and voltage drop problems when it is coordinated with a location and size properly. In this study, the DG integration into the network is optimally distributed by considering the load conditions in different load models used to surmount the impact of load growth. There are five load models tested namely constant, residential, industrial, commercial and mixed loads. The growth of the electrical load is modeled for the base year up to the fifth year as a short-term plan. Minimization of system power loss is taken as the main objective function considering voltage limits. Determination of the location and size of DG is optimally done by using the breeder genetic algorithm (BGA). The proposed studies were applied to the IEEE 30 radial distribution system with single and multiple placement DG scenarios. The results indicated that installing an optimal location and size DG could have a strong potential to reduce power loss and to secure future energy demand of load models. Also, commercial load requires the largest DG active injection power to maintain the voltage value within tolerable limits up to five years.
Anaerobic digestion is an important technology for the bio-based economy. The stability of the process is crucial for its successful implementation and depends on the structure and functional stability of the microbial community. In this study, the total microbial community was analyzed during mesophilic fermentation of sewage sludge in full-scale digesters. The digesters operated at 34–35°C, and a mixture of primary and excess sludge at a ratio of 2:1 was added to the digesters at 550 m3/d, for a sludge load of 0.054 m3/(m3·d). The amount and composition of biogas were determined. The microbial structure of the biomass from the digesters was investigated with use of next-generation sequencing. The percentage of methanogens in the biomass reached 21%, resulting in high quality biogas (over 61% methane content). The abundance of syntrophic bacteria was 4.47%, and stable methane production occurred at a Methanomicrobia to Synergistia ratio of 4.6:1.0. The two most numerous genera of methanogens (about 11% total) were Methanosaeta and Methanolinea, indicating that, at the low substrate loading in the digester, the acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic paths of methane production were equally important. The high abundance of the order Bacteroidetes, including the class Cytophagia (11.6% of all sequences), indicated the high potential of the biomass for efficient degradation of lignocellulitic substances, and for degradation of protein and amino acids to acetate and ammonia. This study sheds light on the ecology of microbial groups that are involved in mesophilic fermentation in mature, stably-performing microbiota in full-scale reactors fed with sewage sludge under low substrate loading.
The internal diameter of a tube in a ‘church window’ condenser was estimated using an entropy generation minimization approach. The adopted model took into account the entropy generation due to heat transfer and flow resistance from the cooling-water side. Calculations were performed considering two equations for the flow resistance coefficient for four different roughness values of a condenser tube. Following the analysis, the internal diameter of the tube was obtained in the range of 17.5 mm to 20 mm (the current internal diameter of the condenser tube is 22 mm). The calculated diameter depends on and is positively related to the roughness assumed in the model.
Currently, the distribution system has been adapted to include a variety of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). Maximum benefits can be extracted from the distribution system with high penetration of DERs by transforming it into a sustainable, isolated microgrid. The key aspects to be addressed for this transformation are the determination of the slack bus and assurance of reliable supply to the prioritized loads even during contingency. This paper explores the possibilities of transforming the existing distribution system into a sustainable isolated network by determining the slack bus and the optimal locations and capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs) in the isolated network, taking into account the contingencies due to faults in the network. A combined sensitivity index is formulated to determine the most sensitive buses for DG placement. Further, the reliability based on the loss of load in the isolated system when a fault occurs is evaluated, and the modifications required in for reliability improvement are discussed. The supremacy of the transformed isolated network with distributed generators is comprehended by comparing the results from conventional IEEE 33-bus grid connected test system and modified IEEE 33-bus isolated test system having no interconnection with the main grid.
A catalytic combustion of organic admixtures of air belongs to the basic technologies of gas purification. A macrokinetics of admixtures combustion over the porous catalysts was described. The theoretical approach is in agreement with standard description of macrokinetics of the catalytic processes. The relationship between the fundamental magnitudes: observed process rate r*, reaction rate r in the kinetic zone, and a coefficient of the surface utilization η in the form r*= r · η have been described. These magnitudes combines the Thiele module φ. A kinetics equation for the isothermal and non-isothermal conditions was provided. The influence of mass and heat transfer in the catalyst grain on the course of the process was described by means of the surface utilization coefficient η. An equation describing this coefficient for both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions was given. The second part of this work concerns the application of theory. When the composition of purified gas is continuously varied, a quantitative approach is rather impossible. The theory was used for the qualitative analysis of process on the basis of the experimental results. A fulfillment of the first-order kinetics means that the degree of admixtures conversion does not depend on their initial concentrations. A non-isothermicity of the catalyst grain is expressed in such a way that the process rate observed over the large porous grains of the catalyst can be higher than the reaction rate in the kinetic zone. A temperature deference between the catalyst grains and flowing gas causes that the reactor can be stably operated at varied concentrations of admixtures and temperature over a relatively wide range. It was also demonstrated that the flammable admixtures may advantageously influence the conversion of hardly combustible admixtures