Horizontal centrifugal casting is an effective method for the production of hollow metal with good mechanical properties, low defect, cast to size and relatively cheap. The ability of a metal to satisfy the above requirements highly depends on its microstructure. In this study, the relationship between microstructural parameters such as grain size and the amount of phases with bulk hardness of SnCu4Pb3 is concerned in three areas of the product. Consequently, to achieve the desired hardness of the product in a particular area, the interaction of two factors of the microstructure including, grain size and particles amount of the hard intermetallic compositions (Cu6Sn5) should be noted.
In the paper the analysis of random vibration of an actively damped laminated plate with functionally graded piezoelectric actuator layers is presented. The simply supported plate is subjected to stochastic loading represented by a uniformly distributed pressure. The random input is assumed as a Gaussian sta- tionary and ergodic process. The actuators are regarded as a multi-layer structure arranged of piezofiber composite sub-layers. The sub-layers differ each other with amount of PZT (lead-zirconate-titanate) fibers and are stacked to achieve a desired change of the PZT volume fraction through the actuator thickness. The gradation scheme of constituents and material properties are estimated by parabolic and power functions. Numerical simulations are performed to recognize the influence of the applied random excita- tions and the actuator properties gradations on the characteristics of the stochastic field of active plate deflection i.e. power spectral density, autocorrelation function and variance
A thermoelastic boundary value problem of a hollow circular disc made of functionally graded materials with arbitrary gradient is analysed. The steady-state temperature distribution is assumed to be the function of the radial coordinate with prescribed temperature at the inner and outer cylindrical boundary surfaces. The material properties are assumed to be arbitrary smooth functions of the radial coordinate. A coupled system of ordinary differential equations containing the radial displacement and stress function is derived and used to get the distribution of thermal stresses and radial displacements caused by axisymmetric mechanical and thermal loads. General analytical solutions of functionally graded disc with thermal loads are not available. The results obtained by the presented numerical method are verified by an analytical solution. The considered analytical solution is valid if the material properties, except the Poisson ratio, are expressed as power functions of the radial coordinate.
The present investigation aims at fabricating a functionally graded Al-6Cr-Y2O3 composite and its microstructural and property characterization. Al-6Cr-alloys with varying percentage of Y2O3 (5-10 vol. %) have been used to fabricate FGM by powder metallurgy route. The samples were subsequently subjected to solution treatment at 610°C for 4 h followed by artificially aged at 310°C for 4 h. The microstructure, hardness and wear behavior of these FGM have been evaluated. FGM exhibited superior hardness (360 ± 5 VHN) as compared to the unprocessed composites (220 ± 5 VHN) due to the uniform dispersion of Y2O3 particles. Wear resistance of Al-6Cr-10 Y2O3 FGM were compared that of with pure Al-6Cr alloy by dry abrasive wear test. Al-6Cr-10 Y2O3 FGM composites were found to exhibit higher wear resistance with the minimum wear rate of 0.009 mm3/m compared to the Al- 6Cr alloy wear rate 0.02 mm3/m.
In this article, the fracture behavior of functionally graded thick-walled cylinder under thermo-mechanical shock is investigated. For this purpose, classical coupled thermoelastic equations are used in calculations. First, these equations are discretized with extended finite element method (XFEM) in the space domain and then they are solved by the Newmark method in the time domain. The most general form of interaction integral is extracted for axially symmetric circumferential crack in a cylinder under thermal and mechanical loads in functionally graded materials and is used to calculate dynamic stress intensity factors (SIFs). The problem solution has been implemented in MATLAB software.
Analytical and numerical nonlinear solutions for rotating variable-thickness functionally graded solid and annular disks with viscoelastic orthotropic material properties are presented by using the method of successive approximations. Variable material properties such as Young’s moduli, density and thickness of the disk, are first introduced to obtain the governing equation. As a second step, the method of successive approximations is proposed to get the nonlinear solution of the problem. In the third step, the method of effective moduli is deduced to reduce the problem to the corresponding one of a homogeneous but anisotropic material. The results of viscoelastic stresses and radial displacement are obtained for annular and solid disks of different profiles and graphically illustrated. The calculated results are compared and the effects due to many parameters are discussed.
Thermal buckling behavior of a functionally graded material (FGM) Timoshenko beam is studied based on the transformed-section method. The material and thermal properties of the FGM beam are assumed to vary across the beam thickness according to a power-law function, a sigmoid function and an exponential function. The results of buckling temperature for the FGM beams with respective temperature-dependent and temperature-independent properties under uniform and non-linear temperature rises are presented. Some results are compared with those in the published literature to verify the accuracy of the present work. The effects of the material distributions, temperature fields, temperature-dependent properties and slenderness ratios on the thermal buckling behaviors of FGM beams are discussed. It is believed that the present model provides engineers with a simple and effective method to study the effects of various parameters of the FGM beam on its thermal buckling behavior.
This paper presents a theoretical study of the propagation behaviour of surface Love waves in nonhomogeneous functionally graded elastic materials, which is a vital problem in acoustics. The elastic properties (shear modulus) of a semi-infinite elastic half-space vary monotonically with the depth (distance from the surface of the material). Two Love wave waveguide structures are analyzed: 1) a nonhomogeneous elastic surface layer deposited on a homogeneous elastic substrate, and 2) a semi-infinite nonhomogeneous elastic half-space. The Direct Sturm-Liouville Problem that describes the propagation of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic functionally graded materials is formulated and solved 1) analytically in the case of the step profile, exponential profile and 1cosh2 type profile, and 2) numerically in the case of the power type profiles (i.e. linear and quadratic), by using two numerical methods: i.e. a) Finite Difference Method, and b) Haskell-Thompson Transfer Matrix Method. The dispersion curves of phase and group velocity of surface Love waves in inhomogeneous elastic graded materials are evaluated. The integral formula for the group velocity of Love waves in nonhomogeneous elastic graded materials has been established. The results obtained in this paper can give a deeper insight into the nature of Love waves propagation in elastic nonhomogeneous functionally graded materials.