In order to provide sufficient cooling capacity for working and heading faces of the coal mine, chilled water is often transported a long distance along pipelines in deep mine, which inevitably results in its temperature rising owing to heat transfer through pipe wall and the friction heat for flow resistance. Through theoretical models for temperature increasing of the chilled water were built. It is pointed out that the temperature rising of the chilled water should be considered as a result of the synergy effects of the heat transfer and the friction heat, but theoretical analysis shows that within engineering permitting error range, the temperature increasing can be regarded as the sum caused by heat transfer and fraction heat respectively, and the calculation is simplified. The calculation analysis of the above two methods was made by taking two type of pipe whose diameters are De273 × 7 mm and De377 × 10 mm, with 15 km length in coal mine as an example, which shows that the error between the two methods is not over 0.04°C within the allowable error range. Aims at the commonly used chilled water diameter pipe, it is proposed that if the specific frictional head loss is limited between 100 Pa/m and 400 Pa/m, the proportion of the frictional temperature rising is about 24%~81% of the total, and it will increase with high flow velocity and the thin of the pipe. As a result, the friction temperature rising must not be ignored and should be paid enough attention in calculation of the chilled water temperature rising along pipe.
This paper presents a vibration analysis of a multi-link surgical micromanipulator joint, based on its detailed mathematical model. The manipulator’s prototype contains 6 links with the diameter of 8-10 [mm] and with the length of the modules of about 130 [mm]. It is driven by brushless servomotors with worm and planetary gears, for which the total transmission ratio is above 1/10000. Regarding the low efficiency of micro-robot drive systems and its vibrations, a reliable joint model and its performance is crucial for the development of a high-precision control system. To achieve the required accuracy, modelling framework has been enriched with an advanced model of friction. Simulation results are presented and discussed.
The paper presents a model for dynamic analysis of belt transmission. A two dimensional discrete model was assumed of a belt consisting of rigid bodies joined by translational and torsion spring-damping elements. In the model, both a contact model and a dry friction model including creep were taken into consideration for belt-pulley interaction. A model with stiffness and damping between the contacting surfaces was used to describe the contact phenomenon, whereas a simplified model of friction was assumed. Motion of the transmission is triggered under the influence of torque loads applied on the pulleys. Equations of motion of separate elements of the belt and pulleys were solved numerically by using adaptive stepsize integration methods. Calculation results are presented of the reaction forces acting on the belt as well as contact and friction forces between the belt body and pulley in the sample of the belt transmission. These were obtained under the influence of the assumed drive and resistance torques.
In the present theoretical analysis, the combined effects of slider curvature and non-Newtonian pseudoplastic and dilatant lubricants (lubricant blended with viscosity index improver) on the steady and dynamic characteristics of pivoted curved slider bearings have been investigated for Rabinowitsch fluid model. The modified Reynolds equations have been obtained for steady and damping states of bearing. To solve the modified Reynolds equations, perturbation theory has been adopted. The results for the steady state characteristics (steady state film pressure, load carrying capacity and centre of pressure) and dynamic characteristics (dynamic damping and dynamic stiffness) have been calculated numerically for various values of viscosity index improver using Mathematica. In comparison with the Newtonian lubricants, higher values of film pressure, load carrying capacity, dynamic damping and dynamic stiffness have been obtained for dilatant lubricants, while the case was reversed for pseudoplastic lubricants. Significant variations in the bearing characteristics have been observed for even small values of pseudoplastic parameter, that is, with the non-Newtonian dilatant and pseudoplastic behaviour of the fluid.
This paper presents the construction of adequate 3-D computer models for simulation research and analysis of dynamic aspects of caliper disc brakes, as well as of drum brakes, actuated by a short stroke electromagnet or a hydraulic thruster, when these brake types are used in the hoisting mechanism of cranes. The adequacy of the 3-D models has been confirmed by comparing their simulation results with results from an experiment and from classic computational models. The classic computational models, related to the study of main dynamic features of friction brakes, are layouts that are based on a number of assumptions, such as that the braking force instantly reaches its steady-state value, the clearance between the friction lining and the disc/drum is neglected, etc. These assumptions lead to a limitation of research options. The proposed 3-D computer models improve the research layouts by eliminating a number of the classic model assumptions. The improvements are related to the determination of the braking time, braking torque, normal force and other dynamic aspects of the brakes by performing simulations that take into account: the braking force as a function of time, the presence of clearance between the friction lining and the disc/drum, etc.