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Abstract

Experimental investigation was conducted on the thermal performance and pressure drop of a convective cooling loop working with ZnO aqueous nanofluids. The loop was used to cool a flat heater connected to an AC autotransformer. Influence of different operating parameters, such as fluid flow rate and mass concentration of nanofluid on surface temperature of heater, pressure drop, friction factor and overall heat transfer coefficient was investigated and briefly discussed. Results of this study showed that, despite a penalty for pressure drop, ZnO/water nanofluid was a promising coolant for cooling the micro-electronic devices and chipsets. It was also found that there is an optimum for concentration of nanofluid so that the heat transfer coefficient is maximum, which was wt. %=0.3 for ZnO/water used in this research. In addition, presence of nanoparticles enhanced the friction factor and pressure drop as well; however, it is not very significant in comparison with those of registered for the base fluid.
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Abstract

The paper presents a numerical study on the heat transfer and pressure drop, related to flow in pipes with helical micro-fins. For all tested geometries, one applied a constant wall heat flux and fully developed 3D turbulent flow conditions. The influence of the angle of micro fins (referred to the tube axis) on thermal-flow characteristics were tested. The value of this angle was varied – with a step of 10 degrees – from 0 to 90 degrees (representing grooves parallel and perpendicular to the axis, respectively). Before numerical investigation, the pipe with helical angle of 30 degree was tested on an experimental stand. The results obtained from experiment and numerical simulations were compared and presented on the charts. As an effect of the numerical simulations, the friction factor f and Nusselt number characteristics was determined for the range of Re=104/1.6x106. The analysis of the results showed high, irregular influence of the helical angle on thermal characteristics and pressure drops. Additionally, the ratios: f/fplain, Nu/Nuplainand efficiency indexes (Nu/Nuplain)/( f/fplain) as a function of the Reynolds number for every helical angle were shown on the charts.
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