Spatial Structures of Financial Transfers to the Budgets of Municipalities in Poland in 2007-2015. The purpose of the submitted paper was to analyse and assess the budgetary income of local self-government units in Poland. The scope of the study was focused on the main categories of revenue being transferred from the state budget to municipal budgets, which were significantly influencing the financing of public tasks at the local level. On the basis of the conducted research it can be stated that the increase of the income of municipalities due to participation in personal income tax, which significantly influenced the incomes of municipalities, should be considered as particularly important. This phenomenon was undoubtedly the result of the influence of many economic, social, legal and administrative factors. It was particularly related to the increase in the income of citizens and indirectly to the improvement of the income situation of enterprises. The observed general increase in the part of incomes of the municipalities acquired as a share of the state budget revenues was also an important positive reflection of a number of significant changes introduced in the period of socio-economic transition in Poland.
We are observing an increase in development activity of the cities with poviat rights nowadays. It is visible especially in the area of obtaining European funds, financial policy, infrastructure or entrepreneurship. Those matters, especially experience of cities with poviat rights as the main beneficiaries became an interesting research area now. The aim of the article is to assess the competitiveness and development level of the cities with poviat rights in voivodships of Eastern Poland. For the purposes of this article, a synthetic measure has been used. Taking into account the availability and comparability of data as well as statistical criteria, the variables describing: financial situation, economy and infrastructure in the system of cities with poviat rights in voivodships of Eastern Poland were adopted. Data from the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office for 2008, 2012 and 2016 were the main source of the article.
On May 17, 2018, the National Center for Research and Development announced the initiation of a new procedure within the Hydrogen Storage Program. The objective was to develop a Hydrogen Storage System for use with fuel cells and its demonstration in a Mobile Facility. This is to create an alternative to the use of fossil fuels and create a field for competition in creating solutions in the field of access to “clean” energy. The National Center for Research and Development is responsible for the development of assumptions, regulations and implementation. The analysis presents the main assumptions of the program is correlated to the current legal situation related to the financing of Research and Development. An in-depth study concerns the ways of using innovative partnership and its placement in the system of European Union legal acts. The idea of the pre-commercial procurement procedure (Pre-Commercial Procurement), which was developed to support the implementation of prototypes of solutions – resulting from research and development – with a high potential for possible commercialization, was described in details. This procedure is characterized by ensuring the financing of a product or service at an early stage of development. Although this creates the risk of failure of the project, it stimulates technological development.