Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element present in the lithosphere, and it constitutes one of the major inorganic nutrient elements of many plants. Although Si is a nonessential nutrient element, its beneficial role in stimulating the growth and development of many plant species has been generally recognized. Silicon is known to effectively reduce disease severity in many plant pathosystems. The key mechanisms of Si-mediated increased plant disease resistance involve improving mechanical properties of cell walls, activating multiple signaling pathways leading to the expression of defense responsive genes and producing antimicrobial compounds. This article highlights the importance and applicability of Si fertilizers in integrated disease management for crops.
Bollworms comprise the most harmful and economically relevant species of lepidopteran. Helicoverpa gelotopoeon (D.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is native to America and affects many crops. Tobacco is an industrial crop in which methods of pest control rely mainly on the application of insecticides. To develop new eco-friendly strategies against insect pests it is very important to overcome the side effects of insecticides. The utilization of fungal entomopathogens as endophytes is a new perspective that may accomplish good results. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of endophytic Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. to affect H. gelotopoeon life parameters and feeding behavior on tobacco plants. Beauveria bassiana LPSC 1215 as an endophyte did not reduce the amount of vegetal material consumed by H. gelotopoeon larvae but affected the life cycle period of the plague, particularly the larval and adult stages. Also, egg fertility was affected since adults laid eggs that were not able to hatch. The results of this investigation provide new information on endophytic entomopathogen potential to be incorporated in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a second prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) treatment during Ovsynch on luteal regression and fertility in dairy cows, compared with standard Ovsynch. The study was conducted on 111 Holstein Friesian multiparous cows on commercial dairy farm. The cows in the experimental group (n=48) received two treatments of PGF2α 24 hours apart during Ovsynch. The cows in the control group (n=63) were synchronized with standard Ovsynch. To assess the progesterone (P4) concentration blood samples were collected at the day of PGF2α treatment and at the 2nd GnRH treatment. Pregnancy was evaluated by ultrasound examination 37-40 days after timed artificial insemination (TAI) by ultrasound. Cows diagnosed pregnant were re-examined between days 70-80 after TAI. The percentage of cows with complete corpus luteum (CL) regression (P4<0.5 ng/ml at the time of the 2nd GnRH treatment) was 89.6 % after two PGF2α treatments and 88.9 % after one PGF2α treatment. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) between the experimental and control group (P/AI). However, the pregnancy loss rate was lower in cows receiving two PGF2α treatments than in the control animals (0.0 % vs. 6.4 %; p<0.05). In conclusion, the second PGF2α treatment during Ovsynch protocol had no significant effect on CL regression and P/AI in dairy cows. The pregnancy losses until days 75-80 after TAI were significantly lower after two PGF2α treatments than after one PGF2α treatment.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of soybean lecithin as a substitute for egg yolk in milk and tris based extenders in ram semen cryopreservation. Twenty ejaculates were col- lected from four healthy, mature Wrzosówka rams (2-3 years of age). Each ejaculate was divided into four equal aliquots and diluted with four different extenders: 1) milk extender containing 5% egg yolk, 2) milk extender containing 1.5% soybean lecithin, 3) tris extender containing 20% egg yolk, 4) tris extender containing 1.5% soybean lecithin. Extended semen was loaded into 0.25 ml French straws, cooled and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor. Total motility, curvilinear velocity, plasma membrane integrity and fertilizing ability of sperm were assessed after thawing. Total mo- tility was lower (p<0.05) in tris-soybean lecithin extender when compared to other extenders. Curvilinear velocity was higher (p<0.05) for spermatozoa cryopreserved in milk-soybean lecithin extender compared to other extenders tested. For the percentage of live sperm no significant difference was observed between extenders. The lambing rate were higher (not statistically signifi- cant) in ewes inseminated with semen doses frozen in milk-soybean lecithin extender (42.9%) than in the tris-egg yolk extender (16.7%). In conclusion, replacing the egg yolk with soybean lecithin was effective in milk but not in tris extender.
The objective of the study was to compare the impact of three systems of multiannual fertilization applied in two long-term field experiments on the content of phenolic compounds in the soil. In the study, both natural (manure, slurry) and mineral (NPK) fertilizers were used, along with combined, organic-and-mineral fertilization. Experiment I was established in 1972 on grey brown podzolic soil; experiment II, in 1973 on brown soil. In both experiments crops were cultivated in a 7-year rotation, with a 75% share of cereals. The experimental samples were taken from the top layer of soil after 36 (experiment I) and 35 (experiment II) years following the establishment of the experiments. It was demonstrated that the presence of phenolic compounds in the soils was significantly dependent on the contents of organic C and total N, type of soil and the type and dose of used fertilizers. In grey brown podzolic soil, the content of total phenolic compounds was at a lower level than the content found in brown soil. Multiannual fertilization contributed to an increase in the content of total phenolic compounds in relation to the values obtained in control objects, which was particularly reflected in the soil originating from objects fertilized with slurry applied at a dose being equivalent to manure in terms of the amount of introduced organic carbon. The percentage of water-soluble phenols in the total content of these compounds in grey brown podzolic soil was at the level of 18.4%, while in brown soil it amounted to 29.1%.
One of the methods of sewage sludge disposal, which is based on its fertilizing properties, is its use in nature, e.g. in farming (if all the permissible standards are met). However, the sludge used for soil fertilization might also contain heavy metals, pathogenic microorganisms, thus causing contamination in soil foundation and deterioration of the conditions for development of indigenous organisms. Particular threat is posed by the existence of drug-resistant microorganisms in sewage sludge. This problem has not been researched in detail yet. The authors of the present study aimed to determine qualitative changes in drug-resistant microorganisms in sandy soil fertilized with selected sewage sludge. Sewage sludge after different types of drying process (natural and solar) was added to the degraded sandy soil. The effect of the methods of sewage sludge drying on concentration of drug-resistant microorganisms in soil fertilized with the sludge was analysed. The study demonstrated that sewage sludge dried naturally in drying beds pose threat to soil environment and, potentially, to people and animals which have contact with fertilized soils. In sandy soils fertilized with these types of sewage sludge, pathogenic forms which exhibit resistance to first-line antibiotics can be found.
The aim of the studies was to evaluate the influence of sowing rate, foliar fertilization (Basfoliar fertilizer 6-12-6) and chemical composition on the mechanical properties of narrow- leaved lupine seeds of cultivars Bojar and Regent. Single seeds were burdened in the direction perpendicular to the parting plane of cotyledons with constant speed 10 mm∙min-1. The crop year and cultivar have significantly differentiated the value of all the analyzed strength parameters of narrow-leaved lupine seeds. The seeds of cultivar Bojar had significantly higher values of all the strength parameters. The designated strength parameters of lupine seeds were negatively correlated with ash content, fiber and protein except for the destructive force. They were also positively correlated with the fat content.